Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 905–924

Beyond the Black Box: A Systematic Review of Breast, Prostate, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Among Native and Immigrant African-Descent Caribbean Populations


    • Department of Psychological MedicineThe University of Auckland
  • Natalie L. Tuck
    • Department of Psychological MedicineThe University of Auckland
  • Camille R. Ragin
    • Cancer Prevention and Control ProgramFox Chase Cancer Center
  • Benjamin A. Spencer
    • Departments of Urology and EpidemiologyColumbia University Medical Center
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10903-014-9991-0

Cite this article as:
Consedine, N.S., Tuck, N.L., Ragin, C.R. et al. J Immigrant Minority Health (2015) 17: 905. doi:10.1007/s10903-014-9991-0


Cancer screening disparities between black and white groupings are well-documented. Less is known regarding African-descent subpopulations despite elevated risk, distinct cultural backgrounds, and increasing numbers of Caribbean migrants. A systematic search of Medline, Web of Science, PubMed and SCOPUS databases (1980–2012) identified 53 studies reporting rates of breast, prostate, cervical, and colorectal screening behavior among immigrant and non-immigrant Caribbean groups. Few studies were conducted within the Caribbean itself; most work is US-based, and the majority stem from Brooklyn, New York. In general, African-descent Caribbean populations screen for breast, prostate, colorectal, and cervical cancers less frequently than US-born African-Americans and at lower rates than recommendations and guidelines. Haitian immigrants, in particular, screen at very low frequencies. Both immigrant and non-immigrant African-descent Caribbean groups participate in screening less frequently than recommended. Studying screening among specific Caribbean groups of African-descent may yield data that both clarifies health disparities between US-born African-Americans and whites and illuminates the specific subpopulations at risk in these growing immigrant communities.


BreastProstateColorectalCervicalCancer screeningDisparitiesEthnic subpopulationsAfrican AmericanAfro-Caribbean

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014