Premigration Harm and Depression: Findings from the New Immigrant Survey, 2003
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Studies examining refugees from conflict areas have found that persecution in the place of origin is a risk factor for depression. No studies have looked at this association between mental health and the experience of premigration harm due to race, gender or religion in the general population of United States immigrants. The New Immigrant Survey baseline questionnaire was administered to a random sample of adults receiving legal permanent residency in the U.S. in 2003 (n = 8,573), including refugees, asylees and other immigrants. In multivariate analysis controlling for visa type, premigration harm was a predictor of general depression of borderline statistical significance [odds ratio (OR), 1.33; 95 % CI 0.98–1.80, p = 0.068] and a significant predictor of major depression with dysphoria (OR, 2.24; 95 % CI 1.48–3.38, p = 0.0001). These findings suggest that premigration harm is a risk factor for depression in the general immigrant population and not just among refugees.
- Monger R, Yankay J. Department of Homeland Security: Annual Flow Report: U.S. Legal Permanent Residents. Available at: http://www.dhs.gov/files/statistics/publications/gc_1301497627185.shtm. Accessed 6 Apr 2012.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol: relating to the status of refugees. Available at: http://www.unhcr.org/4ec262df9.html. Accessed 16 Jan 2012.
- Hollifield, M, Warner, TD, Lian, N, Krakow, B, Jenkins, JH, Kesler, J (2002) Measuring trauma and health status in refugees: a critical review. JAMA 288: pp. 611-621 CrossRef
- Fazel, M, Wheeler, J, Danesh, J (2005) Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet 365: pp. 1309-1314 CrossRef
- Porter, M, Haslam, N (2005) Predisplacement and postdisplacement factors associated with mental health of refugees and internally displaced persons: a meta-analysis. JAMA 294: pp. 602-612 CrossRef
- Murray, KE, Davidson, GR, Schweitzer, RD (2010) Review of refugee mental health interventions following resettlement: best practices and recommendations. Am J Orthopsychiatry 80: pp. 576-585 CrossRef
- Mollica, RF, McInnes, K, Poole, C, Tor, S (1998) Dose-effect relationships of trauma to symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Cambodian survivors of mass violence. Br J Psychiatry 173: pp. 482-488 CrossRef
- Mollica, RF, Sarajlic, N, Chernoff, M, Lavelle, J, Vukovic, IS, Massagli, MP (2001) Longitudinal study of psychiatric symptoms, disability, mortality, and emigration among Bosnian refugees. JAMA 286: pp. 546-554 CrossRef
- Steel, Z, Chey, T, Silove, D, Marnane, C, Bryant, RA, Ommeren, M (2009) Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 302: pp. 537-549 CrossRef
- Chung, R, Kagawa-Singer, M (1993) Predictors of psychological distress among Southeast Asian refugees. Soc Sci Med 36: pp. 631-639 CrossRef
- Marshall, GN, Schell, TL, Elliott, MN, Berthold, SM, Chun, CA (2005) Mental health of Cambodian refugees 2 decades after resettlement in the United States. JAMA 294: pp. 571-579 CrossRef
- Steel, Z, Silove, D, Phan, T, Bauman, A (2002) Long-term effect of psychological trauma on the mental health of Vietnamese refugees in Australia: a population-based study. Lancet 360: pp. 1056-1062 CrossRef
- United States Department of Health and Human Services Office of Refugee Resettlement. Revised medical screening guidelines for newly arrived refugees, 24 July 2012. Available at: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/orr/state_letter_12_09_revised_medical_screening_guidelines_for_newly.pdf. Accessed 29 Nov 2012.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for Mental Health Screening during the Domestic Medical Examination for Newly Arrived Refugees. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/guidelines/domestic/mental-health-screening-guidelines.html. Accessed 2 Dec 2012.
- Kennedy, J, Seymour, DJ, Hummel, BJ (1999) A comprehensive refugee health screening program. Public Health Rep 114: pp. 469-477 CrossRef
- Alegria, M, Canino, G, Shrout, PE, Woo, M, Duan, N, Vila, D (2008) Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. Am J Psychiatry 165: pp. 359-369 CrossRef
- Breslau, J, Borges, G, Hagar, Y, Tancredi, D, Gilman, S (2009) Immigration to the USA and risk for mood and anxiety disorders: variation by origin and age at immigration. Psychol Med 39: pp. 1117-1127 CrossRef
- Miranda, J, Siddique, J, Belin, TR, Kohn-Wood, LP (2005) Depression prevalence in disadvantaged young black women. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40: pp. 253-258 CrossRef
- Jamil, H, Nassar-McMillan, SC, Lambert, RG (2007) Immigration and attendant psychological sequelae: a comparison of three waves of Iraqi immigrants. Am J Orthopsychiatry 77: pp. 199-205 CrossRef
- Fortuna, LR, Porche, MV, Alegria, M (2008) Political violence, psychosocial trauma, and the context of mental health services use among immigrant Latinos in the United States. Ethn Health 13: pp. 435-463 CrossRef
- Miranda, PY, Schulz, AJ, Israel, BA, Gonzalez, HM (2011) Context of entry and number of depressive symptoms in an older Mexican-Origin immigrant population. J Immigr Minority Health 13: pp. 706-712 CrossRef
- Rousseau, C, Drapeau, A (2004) Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress. J Nerv Ment Dis 192: pp. 852-856 CrossRef
- Akresh, IR, Frank, R (2008) Health selection among new immigrants. Am J Public Health 98: pp. 2058-2064 CrossRef
- Jasso G, Massey DS, Rosenzweig MR, Smith JP. The New Immigrant Survey 2003 Round 1 (NIS-2003-1) public release data. Available at: http://nis.princeton.edu. Accessed 2 Mar 2011.
- The New Immigrant Survey Princeton University. Overview. Available at: http://nis.princeton.edu/overview.html. Accessed 15 Mar 2011.
- Kessler, RC, Andrews, G, Mroczek, D, Ustun, B, Wittchen, HU (1998) The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-SF). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 7: pp. 171-185 CrossRef
- Egede, LE, Zheng, D (2003) Independent factors associated with major depressive disorder in a national sample of individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 26: pp. 104-111 CrossRef
- Kagotho, N, Tan, J (2008) Predictors of prostate cancer screening among older immigrant men. J Natl Med Assoc 100: pp. 1168-1174
- Vergara, AE, Miller, JM, Martin, DR, Cookson, ST (2003) A survey of refugee health assessments in the United States. J Immigr Health 5: pp. 67-73 CrossRef
- Fenta, H, Hyman, I, Noh, S (2004) Determinants of depression among Ethiopian immigrants and refugees in Toronto. J Nerv Ment Dis 192: pp. 363-372 CrossRef
- Norris AE, Aroian KJ, Nickerson DM. Premigration persecution, postmigration stressors and resources, and postmigration mental health: a study of severely traumatized U.S. Arab immigrant women. J Am Psychiatr Nurses Assoc 2011;17(4):283–293.
- Gwynn, RC, McQuistion, HL, McVeigh, KH, Garg, RK, Frieden, TR, Thorpe, LE (2008) Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of depression and generalized anxiety disorder in a diverse urban community. Psychiatr Serv 59: pp. 641-664 CrossRef
- Premigration Harm and Depression: Findings from the New Immigrant Survey, 2003
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Volume 16, Issue 5 , pp 773-780
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Premigration harm
- Industry Sectors