Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 1–22

Flow at Work: Evidence for an Upward Spiral of Personal and Organizational Resources*

  • Marisa Salanova
  • Arnold B. Bakker
  • Susana Llorens

DOI: 10.1007/s10902-005-8854-8

Cite this article as:
Salanova, M., Bakker, A.B. & Llorens, S. J Happiness Stud (2006) 7: 1. doi:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-8


The present 2-wave study among 258 secondary school teachers investigates the relationship between personal and organizational resources on the one hand, and work-related flow on the other hand. On the basis of Hobfoll’s (1988) conservation of resources theory, Bandura’ social cognitive theory (1997; 2001), and Fredrickson’s (1998) “broaden-and-build” theory of positive emotions, we formulated two hypotheses: (1) personal resources (i.e., self-efficacy beliefs) and organizational resources (including social support climate and clear goals) facilitate work-related flow (work absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation); and (2) work-related flow has a positive influence on personal and organizational resources. The results of a series of structural equation modeling analyses offer clear support for both hypotheses. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.


flow organizational resources personal resources positive psychology teachers 

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marisa Salanova
    • 1
  • Arnold B. Bakker
  • Susana Llorens
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyJaume I UniversityCastellónSpain

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