Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 1–22

Flow at Work: Evidence for an Upward Spiral of Personal and Organizational Resources*


    • Department of PsychologyJaume I University
  • Arnold B. Bakker
  • Susana Llorens

DOI: 10.1007/s10902-005-8854-8

Cite this article as:
Salanova, M., Bakker, A.B. & Llorens, S. J Happiness Stud (2006) 7: 1. doi:10.1007/s10902-005-8854-8


The present 2-wave study among 258 secondary school teachers investigates the relationship between personal and organizational resources on the one hand, and work-related flow on the other hand. On the basis of Hobfoll’s (1988) conservation of resources theory, Bandura’ social cognitive theory (1997; 2001), and Fredrickson’s (1998) “broaden-and-build” theory of positive emotions, we formulated two hypotheses: (1) personal resources (i.e., self-efficacy beliefs) and organizational resources (including social support climate and clear goals) facilitate work-related flow (work absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation); and (2) work-related flow has a positive influence on personal and organizational resources. The results of a series of structural equation modeling analyses offer clear support for both hypotheses. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.


floworganizational resourcespersonal resourcespositive psychologyteachers
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© Springer 2006