Post-war large housing estates in Norway – Well-kept residential areas still stigmatised?
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The large post-war housing estates constitute an important part of the housing resources in the large Norwegian cities, and the estates seem to present fairly satisfactory conditions physically and socially, compared to similar areas in other countries. Even so, Norwegian large housing estates are held in low esteem. Many of them are stigmatised, and there are some examples of areas facing grave problems. There are several reasons why large housing estates are held in low esteem and have a rather low score on socio-economic and social indicators. Low attraction, low preference for high-rise living, a deregulated housing market, the labelling process, spatial inequality and increasing socio-economic inequality have an impact on segregation and deprivation. We identify some additional factors to explain why large housing estates in Norway still seem to offer fairly satisfactory conditions: a mixed housing stock, the small size of Norwegian cities and estates, a growing local housing market, tenure (low proportion of rented dwellings and public housing), the composition of the occupants, low unemployment rate and a highly redistributing welfare system. Still, many estates are stigmatised and to a certain degree deprived. In these areas we see a need for initiatives to improve the situation. The results of most area-based initiatives in Norway have been positive, but it requires a long-term engagement, a broad perspective and variety of actions, close cooperation with the residents and sufficient resources. The housing co-operatives (co-ops) can create a good starting point for such processes of change when most of the population are already organised through co-ops.
- Aaen, S. (1998) National Strategies for Urban Renewal and Housing Rehabilitation in Norway. In: Housing Renewal in Europe (Eds., Skifter Andersen, H. and Philip, L.), Policy Press, Bristol.
- Barstad, A. (1997) Store byer; liten velferd? Om segregasjon og ulikhet i norske storbyer. Statistisk Sentralbyrå.
- Brattbakk, I., Jørgensen, S. and Dale, B. (2000) Stabilitet eller endring?-Levekårsutvikling i Trondheims boområder på1990-tallet. Forskningsrapport. Geografisk institutt NTNU, Trondheim.
- Brattbakk, I. and Hansen, T. (2002) Kommunal utleie av boliger år 2000 og 1993. Prosjektrapport 338. Norges Byggforskningsinstitutt, Oslo.
- Bysveen, T. and Knutsen, S. (1990) Impacts of Liberalization of the Cooperative Housing Sector in Norway, In: Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research, 7, 155–166.
- Christensen, U. et al. (1993) Bedre bebyggelse-bedre liv? SBI-Byplanlegging 65. Statens byggeforskningsinstitutt, Hørsholm.
- Coleman, A. (1985) Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planning Housing, Faber & Faber, London.
- Dickens, P. (1994) Modernity, Alienation and Environment; Some Aspects of Housing Tenure, Design, and Social Identity. In: Social Rented Housing in Europe: Policy; Tenure and Design, (Ed., Elander, I.), Delft University Press.
- Daunton, M.J. (1987) A Property-owning Democracy? Housing in Britain, Faber & Faber, London.
- Ellingsen, S. (1994) Det mediaskapte drabantbybildet-sammenlignet med nŒrmiljø og sosial aktivitet påBøler. Hovedfagsoppgave i etnologi, Universitetet i Oslo.
- Gakkestad, K. (2003) Romsås-en stigmatisert bydel? En studie av territoriell stigmatisering: Medias rolle og konsekvenser for beboerne. Hovedoppgave i samfunnsgeogra, UIO, Oslo.
- Hagen, K., Djuve, A.B. and Vogt, P. (1994) Oslo den delte byen? FAFO-rappport 161, Oslo.
- Hansen, T. (1999) Etterkrigstidens drabantbyer-en vellykket eller mislykket del av den norske velferdspolitikken. Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning, 2(4), 241–250.
- Hansen, T. (2002) Boligsamvirkets rolle i den sosiale boligpolitikken. Prosjektrapport 319. Norges Byggforskningsinstitutt, Oslo.
- Holt-Jensen, A. (2000) Evaluating Housing and Neighbourhood Initiatives to Improve the Quality of Life of Deprived Neighbourhoods. Geojournal, 51, 281–291.
- NEHOM (2003) Evaluating Housing and Neighbourhood Initiatives to Improve the Quality of Life of Deprived Neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood Housing Models (NEHOM) CD-ROM.
- Newman, O. (1972) Defensible Space. Crime Prevention Through Urban Design, Mac-millan, New York.
- Power, A. and Tunstall, R. (1995): Swimming Against the Tide. Polarization or Progress on 20 Unpopular Council Estates; 1980–1995, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, York.
- Power, A.E. (1997) Estates on the Edge: The Social Consequences of Mass Housing in Europe, Macmillan, London.
- Ringen, S. (1973) Welfare Studies in Scandinavia. Memorandum/The level of living Study; no. 30. Bergen.
- Saunders, P. (1990) A Nation of Home Owners. Unwin Hyman, London.
- Shields, R. (1991) Places on the Margin. Alternative Geographies of Modernity, Routledge, London.
- Skifter Andersen, H. (2002) Can Deprived Housing Areas be Revitalised? Efforts Against Segregation and Neighbourhood Decay in Denmark and Europe. Urban studies, 39(4), 767–790.
- Statistics Norway (2001) Survey of Level of Living 2001.
- Statistics Norway (2002) Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2002.
- St.meld.nr. 50 (1998–1999) Utjamningsmeldinga. Om fordeling av inntekt og levekår i Norge.
- St.meld.nr. 31 (2002–2003) Storbymeldingen. Om utviklingen av storbypolitikk.
- Søholt, S. and Sæterdal, A. (1989) In search for a Policy for Developing Local Housing Areas with a Greater Possibility of Self Reliance, Control and Flexibility. A case study of an experimental programme for post war housing areas. In: Neue Wohn-formen in Europa. Berichte des vierten internationalen Wohnbund-Kongresses in Hamburg.
- Van Kempen, E.T. (1994) High-Rise Living: The Social Limits to Design, Social Rented Housing in Europe: Policy; Tenure and Design (Eds., Danermark, B. and Elander, I.), Delft University Press, pp. 159–180.
- Wallace, M. (2001) A New Approach to Neighbourhood Renewal in England, Urban studies, 38(12), 2163–2166.
- Wessel, T. (2000) Social Polarisation and Socio-economic Segregation in a Welfare State: The Case of Oslo, Urban Studies, 37, 1947–1967.
- Wessel, T. (2001) Losing Control? Inequality and Social Divisions in Oslo, European Planning Studies, 9(7), 889–906.
- Post-war large housing estates in Norway – Well-kept residential areas still stigmatised?
Journal of Housing and the Built Environment
Volume 19, Issue 3 , pp 311-332
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- area-based initiatives
- differentiating process
- labelling process
- large housing estates