Journal of Community Health

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 156–162

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in Sikkim


  • Vikram Rajapure
    • Plant Molecular Biology, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute
  • Ranjan Tirwa
    • Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesSikkim University
  • Hemant Poudyal
    • School of Biomedical SciencesThe University of Queensland
    • Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesSikkim University
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10900-012-9596-2

Cite this article as:
Rajapure, V., Tirwa, R., Poudyal, H. et al. J Community Health (2013) 38: 156. doi:10.1007/s10900-012-9596-2


The population of Sikkim is a unique blend of multi-tribal and metropolitan culture. However, till date, no data regarding prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (henceforth abbreviated as STDs) among this population is available and hence requires attention. Hence the objective is to determine the prevalence of STDs in Sikkim and to describe associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study involving ‘Questionnaire-based anonymous feedback system’ was followed to collect data from 2,000 individuals across the society. The four most common STDs, gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia and HIV, were considered for the study. Total 69 (3.6 %) cases of STDs were found in 1,918 individuals was affected by at least one of the STDs, out of which 43 were males and 26 were females. Cases of gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydiasis and HIV were 25, 22, 4 and 18 respectively. Out of total 69 cases of STDs, 20 individuals were also suffering from some kind of hepatitis. Addictions like alcoholism, smoking and drugs were also found in significant number, with 1,019 (>50 %) individuals with at least one of these addictions. Relative risk analysis indicates that gender-wise females are more vulnerable to STDs than males. The number of partners, addictions, especially alcohol and drug abuse, also contribute to STD cases. STDs act as a significant risk factor in transmitting some of the types of hepatitis. In such cases, females are more vulnerable than males. The results suggest that new community health programs are essential for both, HIV and non-HIV STDs in Sikkim.


SikkimSexually transmitted diseases (STDs)Risk factorsAddictions

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012