The Landscape of Overweight and Obesity in Icelandic Adolescents: Geographic Variation in Body-Mass Index Between 2000 and 2009
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally. This study examined the geographic variation in overweight and obesity trends among Icelandic adolescents in urban and rural areas. Data from two cross-sectional population-based samples of 14- and 15-year-old students attending the compulsory 9th and 10th grades of the Icelandic secondary school system in 2000 and 2009 were used to calculate body mass index (BMI). Overweight and obesity rates were represented for 17 zones on maps created with the ArcGis geographic information and imaging software. Results were that males had higher rates of overweight and obesity than females in both 2000 and 2009, with a significant difference for both genders between years. Mean BMI was higher for rural areas than urban areas in both study years. Out of 17 geographic zones, the prevalence of obesity increased between 2000 and 2009 for males in 16; however, the one remaining zone had the highest increase in overweight. Obesity increased in 13 zones for girls and decreased in four from 2000 to 2009. Mean BMI rose between the study years but fewer zones differentiated from each other in 2009 than 2000. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased among Icelandic adolescents in both urban and rural areas; however, rural areas have higher rates of obesity, overweight, and mean BMI than urban areas. Because of diminishing differences between areas from 2000 to 2009 the increase in mean BMI, increases in overweight, and obesity appear to be more rapid in urban areas than rural areas.
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic of obesity. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 894, 1–253.
- Lobstein, T., Baur, L., & Uauy, R. (2005). Obesity in children and young people: A crisis in public health. Obesity Reviews, 5(S1), 4–85. CrossRef
- Lobstein, T. J., James, W. P., & Cole, T. J. (2003). Increasing levels of excess weight among children in England. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27, 1136–1138. CrossRef
- Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., McDowell, M. A., Tabak, C. J., & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United states, 1999–2004. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 1549–1555. CrossRef
- Tremblay, M. S., Katzmarzyk, P. T., & Willms, J. D. (2002). Temporal trends in overweight and obesity in Canada, 1981–1996. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 538–543. CrossRef
- Kautiainen, S., Rimpela, A., Vikat, A., & Virtanen, S. M. (2002). Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents 1977–1999. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 26, 544–552. CrossRef
- Matthiessen, J., Groth, M. V., Fagt, S., Biltoft-Jensen, A., Stockmarr, A., Strodl, J., et al. (2008). Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Denmark. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36, 153–160. CrossRef
- Ekblom, Ö. B., Oddsson, K., & Ekblom, B. T. (2004). Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in Swedish children from 1987 to 2001. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 32, 257–263. CrossRef
- Werner, B., & Bodin, L. (2007). Obesity in Swedish schoolchildren is increasing in both prevalence and severity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 536–543. CrossRef
- Bjornlev, S., Lydersen, S., Holmen, J., Nilsen, T. I. L., & Holmen, T. L. (2009). Sex differences in time trends for overweight and obesity in adolescents: The Young-HUNT Study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 37, 881–889. CrossRef
- Eiðsdóttir, S. Þ., Kristjánsson, Á. L., Sigfúsdóttir, I. D., Garber, C. E., & Allegrante, J. P. (2010). Trends in body mass index among Icelandic adolescents and young adults from 1992 to 2007. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6, 1–17.
- Kvaavik, E., Tell, G. S., & Klepp, K.-I. (2003). Predictors and tracking of body mass index from adolescence into adulthood. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 1212–1218. CrossRef
- Whitaker, R. C., Wright, J. A., Pepe, M. S., Seidel, K. D., & Dietz, W. H. (1997). Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 227, 869–873. CrossRef
- Bjørge, T., Engeland, A., Tverdal, A., & Smith, G. D. (2008). Body mass index in adolescence in relation to cause-specific mortality a follow-up of 230, 000 Norwegian adolescents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 168, 30–37. CrossRef
- Baker, J. L., Olsen, L. W., & Sørensen, T. I. A. (2007). Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, 357, 2329–2337. CrossRef
- Lloyd, L. J., Langley-Evans, S. C., & McMullen, S. (2010). Childhood obesity, adult cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review. International Journal of Obesity, 34, 18–28. CrossRef
- Himes, J. H. (2009). Challenges of accurately measuring and using BMI and other indicators of obesity in children. Pediatrics, 124, S3–S22. CrossRef
- Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ, 320, 1240–1246. CrossRef
- Jackson, A. S., Ellis, K. J., McFarlin, B. K., Sailors, M. H., & Bray, M. S. (2009). Body mass index bias in defining obesity of diverse young adults: The Training Intervention and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study. The British Journal of Nutrition, 102, 1084–1090. CrossRef
- Haslam, D. W., & James, W. P. T. (2005). Obesity. Lancet, 366, 1197–1209. CrossRef
- Slater, J., Green, C., Sevenhuysen, G., O’Neil, J., & Eginton, B. (2009). Socio-demographic and geographic analysis of overweight and obesity in Canadian adults using the Canadian community health survey (2005). Chronic Diseases in Canada, 30(1), 4–15.
- Yiannakoulias, N., Svenson, L. W., & Schopflocher, D. P. (2009). An integrated framework for the geographic surveillance of chronic disease. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8, 69–83. CrossRef
- Svensson, E., Reas, D. L., Sandanger, I., & Nygård, J. F. (2007). Urban rural differences in BMI, overweight and obesity in Norway (1990 and 2001). Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35, 555–558. CrossRef
- Vuorela, N., Saha, M.-T., & Salo, M. (2009). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 5- and 12-year-old Finnish children in 1986 and 2006. Acta Paediatrica, 98, 507–512. CrossRef
- Sigfusdottir, I. D., Thorlindsson, T., Kristjansson, A. L., Roe, K. M., & Allegrante, J. P. (2009). Substance use prevention for adolescents: The Icelandic model. Health Promotion International, 24, 16–25. CrossRef
- Hagstofa Íslands [Statistics Iceland]. (2009). Mannfjöldi eftir uppruna, kyni, aldri og ríkisfangi 1996–2009 [Population by origin, gender, age and citizenship]. Iceland: Reykjavik.
- Hagstofa Íslands [Statistics Iceland]. (2009). Mannfjöldi eftir sveitarfélagi, kyni og aldri 1. desember 1997–2009 [Population by municipality, gender and age December 1st 1997–2009]. Iceland: Reykjavik.
- Freedman, D. S., & Sherry, B. (2009). The validity of BMI as an indicator of body fatness and risk among children. Pediatrics, 124, S23–S34. CrossRef
- Spencer, E. A., Appelby, P. N., Davey, G. K., & Key, T. J. (2002). Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants. Public Health Nutrition, 5, 561–565. CrossRef
- Wang, Z., Patterson, C. M., & Hills, A. P. (2002). A comparison of self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in Australian adolescents. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 26, 473–478. CrossRef
- The Landscape of Overweight and Obesity in Icelandic Adolescents: Geographic Variation in Body-Mass Index Between 2000 and 2009
Journal of Community Health
Volume 37, Issue 1 , pp 234-241
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Geographic variation
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis, Reykjavik University, Menntavegur 1, 101, Reykjavik, Iceland
- 2. Department of Health and Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, 525 West 120th Street, New York, NY, 10027, USA
- 3. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 West 168th street, New York, NY, 10032, USA