Reliability and Validity of the Pathological Gambling Adaptation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS) Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Pallanti, S., DeCaria, C.M., Grant, J. et al. J Gambl Stud (2005) 21: 431. doi:10.1007/s10899-005-5557-3
The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale adapted for Pathological Gambling (PG-YBOCS) was developed to measure the severity and change in severity of pathological gambling symptoms. The PG-YBOCS is a 10-item clinician-administered questionnaire that measures the severity of PG over a recent time interval (usually within the past one/two week(s)). In order to assess and validate the scale, it was administered to 337 subjects: 188 pathological gamblers and 149 healthy controls. Internal consistency and correlations between individual items and total score were assessed for various permutations of the sample. Other scales were administered to assess convergent, discriminant and content validity. Sensitivity to change was evaluated in treatment studies with fluovoxamine, lithium, and valproate. Each item was frequently endorsed across a range of severity. Good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were obtained. The PG-YBOCS showed high validity and reliability for total score, item-total correlations, and for each subscale (Thoughts/Urges and Behavior). PG-YBOCS scores correlated with global severity and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) scores. The scale was also sensitive to change in pathological gambling severity. PG-YBOCS thus appears to be a reliable and valid measure of pathological gambling severity, and can be regarded as an important tool for clinicians and researchers treating pathological gamblers.
Keywords pathological gambling validity reliability psychometrics References
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Black, D. W., Moyer, T. 1998 Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior Psychiatric Services 49 1434 9 Google Scholar Blaszczynski, A., McConaghy, N. 1989 Anxiety and/or depression in the pathogenesis of addictive gambling The International Journal of the Addictions 24 337 50 Google Scholar Crockford, D. N., El-Guebaly, N. 1998 Naltrexone in the treatment of pathological gambling and alcohol dependence Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 43 86 Google Scholar Cunningham-Williams, R. M., Cottler, L. B., Compton, W. M., Spitznagel, E. L., Ben-Abdallah, A. 2000 Problem gambling and comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders among drug users recruited from drug treatment and community settings Journal of Gambling Studies 16 347 76 Google Scholar
DeCaria C. M., Hollander E., Begaz T., Schemeidler J., Wong C. M., Cartwright C., & Mosovich S. (1998). Reliability and validity of a pathological gambling modification of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (PG-YBOCS): preliminary findings. Paper Presentation at the 12th National Conference on Problem Gambling (pp. 17–20). Las Vegas, Nevada.
Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., Fleischmann, R. L., Hill, C. L., Heninger, G. R., Charney, D. S. 1989a The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability Archives of General Psychiatry 46 1006 1011 Google Scholar Goodman, W. K., Price, L. H., Rasmussen, S. A., Mazure, C., Delgado, P., Heninger, G. R., Charney, D. S. 1989b The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. II. Validity Archives of General Psychiatry 46 1012 1016 Google Scholar Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Potenza, M. N., Blanco, C., Ibanez, A., Stevens, L. C., Zaninelli, R. 2003 Paroxetine treatment of pathological gambling: a multi-center randomized controlled trial International Clinical Psychopharmacology 18 243 249 Google Scholar Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Potenza, M. N. 2003 Advances in the pharmacological treatment of pathological gambling Journal of Gambling Studies 19 85 109 CrossRef Google Scholar Hamilton, M. 1959 The assessment of anxiety states by rating The British Journal of Medical Psychology 32 50 5 Google Scholar Hamilton, M. 1960 A rating scale for depression Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 23 56 62 Google Scholar Hamilton, M. 1967 Diagnosis and rating of anxiety British Journal of Psychiatry 3 76 79 Google Scholar Hollander, E., DeCaria, C. M., Mari, E., Wong, C. M., Mosovich, S., Grossman, R., Begaz, T. 1998 Short-Time single-blind fluvoxamine treatment of pathological gambling American Journal of Psychiatry 155 1781 3 Google Scholar Hollander, E., DeCaria, C. M., Finkell, J. N., Begaz, T., Wong, C. M., Cartwright, C. 2000 A randomized double-blind fluvoxamine/placebo crossover trial of pathological gambling Biological Psychiatry 1 47 813 7 Google Scholar Kobak, K. A., Greist, J. H., Reynolds, W. M. 1993 Computerised assessment of depression in the medically ill Br J Psychiatry. May 162 709 10 Google Scholar Lesieur, H. M., Blume, S. B. 1987 The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): a new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers American Journal of Psychiatry 144 1184 1188 Google Scholar McCormick, R. A. 1993 Disinhibition and negative affectivity in substance abusers with and without a gambling problem Addictive Behaviors 18 331 6 CrossRef Google Scholar
National Council on Problem Gambling Research and Public Policy Committees: Problem and Pathological Gambling in America (1997). The National Picture. Columbia, NW: National Council on Problem Gambling.
Pallanti, S., Quercioli, L., Sood, E., Hollander, E. 2002 Lithium and valproate treatment of pathological gambling: A randomized single-blind study Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 559 564 Google Scholar Potenza, M. N., Steinberg, M. A., McLaughlin, S. D., Rounsaville, B. J., O’Malley, S. S. 2000 Illegal behaviors in problem gambling: analysis of data from a gambling helpline The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 28 389 403 Google Scholar Riskind, J. H., Beck, A. T., Brown, G., Steer, R. A. 1987 Taking the measure of anxiety and depression: Validity of the reconstructed Hamilton scales Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 175 474 479 Google Scholar
SPSS for Windows release 9.0.0 (1998). Copyright SPSS Inc., 1989–1999. All rights reserved.
Stinchfield, R., Winters, K. C. 2004 Outcome of Minnesota’s gambling treatment programs Journal of Gambling Studies 17 217 245 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005