“Grasping the Grey”: Patient Understanding and Interpretation of an Intermediate Allele Predictive Test Result for Huntington Disease
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- Semaka, A., Balneaves, L.G. & Hayden, M.R. J Genet Counsel (2013) 22: 200. doi:10.1007/s10897-012-9533-7
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Since the discovery of the genetic mutation underlying Huntington disease (HD) and the development of predictive testing, the genetics of HD has generally been described as straightforward; an individual receives either mutation-positive or negative predictive test results. However, in actuality, the genetics of HD is complex and a small proportion of individuals receive an unusual predictive test result called an intermediate allele (IA). Unlike mutation-positive or negative results, IAs confer uncertain clinical implications. While individuals with an IA will usually not develop HD, there remains an unknown risk for their children and future generations to develop the disorder. The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals understood and interpreted their IA result. Interviews were conducted with 29 individuals who received an IA result and 8 medical genetics service providers. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the coding procedures of grounded theory. Many participants had difficulty “Grasping the Grey” (i.e. understanding and interpreting their IA results) and their family experience, beliefs, expectations, and genetic counseling influenced the degree of this struggle. The theoretical model developed informs clinical practice regarding IAs, ensuring that this unique subset of patients received appropriate education, support, and counseling.