, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 213-220
Date: 09 Oct 2012

2-NBDG Fluorescence Imaging of Hypermetabolic Circulating Tumor Cells in Mouse Xenograft model of Breast Cancer

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Abstract

Objectives

To determine use of 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) as a tracer for detection of hypermetabolic circulating tumor cells (CTC) by fluorescence imaging.

Procedures

Human breast cancer cells were implanted in the mammary gland fat pad of athymic mice to establish orthotopic human breast cancer xenografts as a mouse model of circulating breast cancer cells. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of the tumor-bearing mice injected with 2-DeoxyGlucosone 750 (2-DG 750) was conducted to assess glucose metabolism of xenograft tumors. Following incubation with fluorescent 2-NBDG, circulating breast cancer cells in the blood samples collected from the tumor-bearing mice were collected by magnetic separation, followed by fluorescence imaging for 2-NBDG uptake by circulating breast cancer cells, and correlation of the number of hypermetabolic circulating breast cancer cells with tumor size at the time when the blood samples were collected.

Results

Human breast cancer xenograft tumors derived from MDA-MB-231, BT474, or SKBR-3 cells were visualized on near-infrared fluorescence imaging of the tumor-bearing mice injected with 2-DG 750. Hypermetabolic circulating breast cancer cells with increased uptake of fluorescent 2-NBDG were detected in the blood samples from tumor-bearing mice and visualized by fluorescence imaging, but not in the blood samples from normal control mice. The number of hypermetabolic circulating breast cancer cells increased along with growth of xenograft tumors, with the number of hypermetabolic circulating breast cancer cells detected in the mice bearing MDA-MB231 xenografts larger than those in the mice bearing BT474 or SKBR-3 xenograft tumors.

Conclusions

Circulating breast cancer cells with increased uptake of fluorescent 2-NBDG were detected in mice bearing human breast cancer xenograft tumors by fluorescence imaging, suggesting clinical use of 2-NBDG as a tracer for fluorescence imaging of hypermetabolic circulating breast cancer cells.