The Journal of Economic Inequality

, Volume 10, Issue 4, pp 565–581

Cultural constraints on rising income inequality: A U.S.–Japan comparison


  • Arthur Sakamoto
    • Department of SociologyUniversity of Texas
    • Department of SociologyPortland State University
  • Isao Takei
    • Department of International RelationsNihon University
  • Yoichi Murase
    • College of Social RelationsRikkyo University

DOI: 10.1007/s10888-011-9204-1

Cite this article as:
Sakamoto, A., Woo, H., Takei, I. et al. J Econ Inequal (2012) 10: 565. doi:10.1007/s10888-011-9204-1


Prior research has identified fundamental cultural and normative concepts—including wa, enryo, giri, and amae—that are typically argued to be integral to Japanese society. We advance this line of research by discussing how these traditional cultural concepts may influence labor market relations and thereby constrain the degree of income inequality in Japan relative to the U.S. Collectivist cultural attitudes are embedded in Japanese work organization, and are naturally inherited social constraints when compared to more unbridled labor market relations of the “New Economy” in the U.S. While studies of rising inequality in the U.S. and Europe consider how governmental policies impinge upon market forces in order to moderate labor market outcomes, our analysis suggests how culture may sometimes directly constrain income inequality without imposing legal regulations or instituting official programs.


Income inequalityJapanU.S.IndividualismCollectivismCulture

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011