Date: 11 Nov 2009
Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations found in the above ground parts. A fungal endophyte, Undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species, is responsible for the synthesis of swainsonine. By using quantitative PCR, the endophyte can be quantified in locoweed species. Endophyte amounts differ between plant parts and in some instances do not mirror the concentrations of swainsonine in the corresponding parts. Two groups of Oxytropis sericea were identified: one that accumulated high concentrations of swainsonine and another where swainsonine was not detected, or concentrations were near the detection threshold. The plants with high swainsonine concentrations had quantitatively higher amounts of endophyte. Alternatively, plants with low or no swainsonine detected had quantitatively lower endophyte amounts. In addition, swainsonine and endophyte concentrations were not distributed uniformly within the same plant when separated into stalks (leaves, scape(s), and flowers/pods). These findings provide evidence as to why plants in the same population accumulate different concentrations of swainsonine, and they have important implications for sampling of locoweed plants.
Adcock, R.A., Hill, N. S., Bouton, J. H., Boerma, H. R., and Ware, G. O. 1997. Symbiont regulation and reducing ergot alkaloid concentration by breeding endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:691–704.CrossRef
Cao, G. R., Li, S. J., Duan, D. X., Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F., Wang, K., and Tong, C. 1992. The toxic principle of Chinese locoweeds (Oxytropis and Astragalus): Toxicity in goats, pp. 117–121, in L. F. James, R. F. Keeler, P. R. Cheeke, E. M. Bailey Jr., and M. P. Hegarty (eds.). Poisonous Plants. Iowa State University Press: Ames.
Cheplick, G. P. and Faeth, S. H. 2009. Ecology and evolution of the grass-endophyte symbiosis. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–17.
Colegate, S. M., Dorling, P. R., and Huxtable, C. R. 1979. A spectroscopic investigation of swainsonine: an alpha-mannosidase inhibitor isolated from Swainsona canescens. Aust. J. Chem. 32:2257–2264.
Colodel, E. M., Gardner, D. R., Zlotowski, P., and Driemeier, D. 2002. Identification of swainsonine as a glycoside inhibitor responsible for Sida carpinifolia poisoning. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 44:177–178.PubMed
Cook, D., Ralphs, M. H., Welch, K. D., and Stegelmeier, B. L. 2009a. Locoweed poisoning in livestock. Rangelands. 31:16–21.CrossRef
Cook, D., Gardner, D. R., Welch, K. D., Roper, J. M., Ralphs, M. H., and Green, B. T. 2009b. Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:6050–6054CrossRef
Dombrowski, J. E., Baldwin, J. C., Azevedo, M. D., and Banowetz, G. M. 2006. A sensitive PCR-based assay to detect Neotyphodium fungi in seed and plant tissue of tall fescue and ryegrass species. Crop Sci. 46:1064–1070.CrossRef
Dorling, P. R., Colegate, S. M., and Huxtable, C. R. 1989. Toxic species of the plant genus Swainsona, pp 14–22, in L. F. James, A. D. Elbein, R. J. Molyneux, and C. D. Warren (eds.). Swainsonine and Related Glycosidase Inhibitors. Iowa State University Press: Ames.
Gardner, D. R., Molyneux, R. J., and Ralphs, M. H. 2001. Analysis of swainsonine: extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populations of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:4573–4580.CrossRef
James, L. F.and Nielsen, D. 1988. Locoweeds: Assessment of the problem on western U. S. rangelands, pp. 171–180, in L. F. James, M. H. Ralphs, and D. B. Nielsen (eds.). The Ecology and Economic Impact of Poisonous Plants on Livestock Production. Westview, Boulder.
Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada, pp 305–313. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
Molyneux, R. J. and Gomez-Sosa, E. 1991. Presencia del alcaloide indolizidinico swainsonine en Astragalus pehuenches (Leguminosae—Galegueae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 27:59-64.
Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F., Ralphs, M.H., Pfister, J. A., Panter, K. E., and Nash, R. J. 1994. Polyhydroxylated glycosidase inhibitors from poisonous plants of global distribution: analysis and identification, pp. 107–112, in S. M. Colegate and P. R. Dorling (eds.). Plant-associated Toxins, Agricultural and Phytochemical Aspects. CABI, Wallingford.
Pryor, B. M., Creamer, R., Shoemaker, R. A., Mcclain-Romero, J., and Hambleton, S. 2009. Undifilum, a new genus for endophytic Embellisia oxytropis and parasitic Helminthosporium bornmuelleri on legumes. Botany 87:178–194.CrossRef
Ralphs, M. H., Creamer, R., Baucom, D., Gardner, D. R, Welsh, S. L., Graham, J. D., Hart, C., Cook, D., and Stegelmeier, B. L. 2008. Relationship between the endophyte Embellisia Spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). J. Chem. Ecol. 34:32–38.CrossRefPubMed
Roylance, J. T., Hill, N. S., and Agee, C.S. 1994. Ergovaline and peramine production in endophyte-infected tall fescue: independent regulation and effects of plant and endophyte genotype. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:2171–2183.CrossRef
Rudgers, J. A. and Clay, K. 2007. Endophyte symbiosis with tall fescue: how straong are the impacts on communities and ecosystems? Fungal Biol. Reviews 21:107–124.
Stegelmeier, B. L., James, L. F., Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R., Ralphs, M. H., and Molyneux, R. J. 1999. Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 11:446–454.
Wang, Q., Nagao, H., Li, Y., Wang, H., and Kakishima, M. 2006. Embellisia oxytropis, a new species isolated from Oxytropis kansuensis in China. Mycotaxon 95:255–260.
White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, pp. 315–322, in M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. Sninsky and T. J. White (eds.). PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic, SanDiego.
Young, C. A., Bryant, M. K., Christensen, M. J., Tapper, B. A., Bryan, G. T., and Scott, B. 2005. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a symbiosis-expressed gene cluster for lolitrem biosynthesis from a mutaualistic endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Mol. Gen. Genomics 274: 13–29.CrossRef
- Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Volume 35, Issue 10 , pp 1272-1278
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Oxytropis sericea
- Industry Sectors