Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 34, Issue 12, pp 1602–1609

Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Integrity

  • D. M. Suckling
  • R. W. Peck
  • L. M. Manning
  • L. D. Stringer
  • J. Cappadonna
  • A. M. El-Sayed
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10886-008-9566-4

Cite this article as:
Suckling, D.M., Peck, R.W., Manning, L.M. et al. J Chem Ecol (2008) 34: 1602. doi:10.1007/s10886-008-9566-4

Abstract

Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected.

Keywords

Argentine antTrail pheromoneDisruptionTrack angleTrail integrityInvasive species

Supplementary material

10886_2008_9566_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.1 mb)
Video AArgentine ants walking on a wall before and after the disruption of trail integrity using an excess of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexedecenal (Experiment 1.1). Double click below to view the video (DOC 1.06 MB).
10886_2008_9566_MOESM2_ESM.doc (33 kb)
Fig. AProportion of plots with visible Argentine ant trails in Experiment 2.1 under small plot disruption (1 m2; n = 4 replicates) (DOC 33.0 KB).
10886_2008_9566_MOESM3_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Fig. BProportion of plots with visible Argentine ant trails in Experiment 2.2 under small plot disruption (4 m2; n = 6 replicates) (DOC 27.5 KB).
10886_2008_9566_MOESM4_ESM.doc (24 kb)
Fig. CPersistence of Argentine ant trail pheromone (Z)-9-hexedecenal in wax-based ant sand in (DOC 23.5 KB).
10886_2008_9566_MOESM5_ESM.doc (24 kb)
Fig. DWind speed (±SEM) with height above ground on three dates with consistent trade winds at Broomsedge Burn, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Gusts into the boundary layer of bare soil are likely under these conditions (DOC 23.5 KB).

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. M. Suckling
    • 1
  • R. W. Peck
    • 2
  • L. M. Manning
    • 1
  • L. D. Stringer
    • 1
  • J. Cappadonna
    • 2
  • A. M. El-Sayed
    • 1
  1. 1.The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New ZealandLincolnNew Zealand
  2. 2.USGS Hawaii Cooperative Studies UnitUniversity of Hawaii at Hilo/PACRCHawaii National ParkUSA