, R. A., Hill
, N. S., Bouton
, J. H., Boerma
, H. R., and Ware
, G. O. 1997. Sympiont regulation and reducing ergot alkaloid concentration by breeding endophyte-infected tall fescue. J. Chem. Ecol.
, C. S., Hill
, and N. S. 1994. Ergovaline variability in Acremonium
-infected tall fescue due to environmental and plant genotype. Crop Sci.
, J. R. 2003. Atypical morphology of dark septate fungal root endophytes of Bouteloua
in arid southwestern USA rangelands. Mycorrhiza
, J. R., and Aaltonen
, R. E. 2001. Evaluation of the internal colonization of Atriplex canescens
(Pursh) Nutt. roots by dark septate fungi and the influence of host physiological activity. Mycorrhiza
Belfon, R., and Creamer, R. 2003. RAPD–PCR analysis of fungal endophytes of locoweed. Phytopathology 93:S7.
, K., Romero
, J., Liddell
, C., and Creamer
, R. 2003. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycol. Res
Creamer, R., McLain-omero, J., and Oldrup, E. 2007. Fungal endophytes of locoweed: an overview, pp. 338–344, in K. E. Panter, and J. A. Pfister (eds.). Poisonous Plants: Global Research and Solutions CABI, Wallingford, UK.
, D. R., Molyneux
, R. J., and Ralphs
, M. H. 2001. Analysis of swainsonine: extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populations of locoweeds (Oxytropis
spp.). J. Agric. Food Chem
Gardner, D. R., Romero, J., Ralphs, M. H., and Creamer, R. 2004. Correlation of an endophytic fungus (Alternaria spp.) with the presence of swainsonine in Lambert locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii), pp. 32–37, in T. Acamovic, C. S. Stewart, and T. W. Pennycott (eds.). Poisonous Plants and Related Toxins, CABI, Walligford, UK.
Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous Plants of the United States and Canada. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
, S., Creamer
, R., and Sterling
, T. M. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among New Mexico Astragalus mollissimus
varieties and Oxytropis
speices by restriction fragment analysis. Weed Sci
, M. E., Barrow
, J. R., Osuna
, P., and Reyes
, I. 2006. Plant–fungal interactions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems: Large-scale impacts from microscale processes. J. Arid Environ
, J., Creamer
, R., Zepeda
, H., Strickland
, J., and Bell
, G. 2004a. The toxicosis of Embellisia
fungi from locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii
) is similar to locoweed toxicosis in rats. J. Anim. Sci
, J., Padilla
, A., and Creamer
, R. 2004b. Microscopic localization of Embellisia
in seed and seedlings of southern speckle pod locoweed. Phytopathology
Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Pfister, J. A., Panter, K. E., and Nash, R. J. 1994. Polyhydroxylated glycosidase inhibitors from poisonous plants of global distribution: analysis and identification, pp. 107–112, in S.M. Colgate, and P.R. Dorling (eds.). Plant-associated Toxins, Agricultural, Phytochemical and Ecological Aspects, CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Oldrup, W. O. 2005. Determining the influence of environmental parameters on swainsonine production in Oxytropis sericea and its fungal endophyte. MS thesis. New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.
Omacini, M., Chaneton, E. J., and Ghersa, C. M. 2005. A herarchial framework for understanding the ecosystem consequences of endophyte–grass symbioses, pp. 141–162, in C. A. Roberts, C. P. West, and D. E. Spiers (eds.). Neotyphodium in Cool-season GrassesBlackwell, Ames, IA.
Porter, J. K. 1997. Endophyte alkaloids, pp. 51–62, in J. P. F. D'Mello (ed.). Handbook of Plant and Fungal Toxicants, CRC Press, Boca Raton.
, M. H. 1993. Seasonal grazing of locoweeds by cattle in northeastern New Mexico. J. Range Manag
Ralphs, M. H., Graham, J. D., and James, L. F. 2002a. A close look at locoweed poisoning on shortgrass prairies. Rangelands 24:30–34.
, M. H., Welsh
, S. L., and Gardner
, D. R. 2002b. Distribution of locoweed toxin swainsonine in populations of Oxytropis lambertii
. J. Chem. Ecol
, J. T., Hill
, N. S., and Agee
, C. S. 1994. Ergovaline and peramine production in endophyte-infected tall fescue: Independent regulation and effects of plant and endophyte genotype. J. Chem. Ecol
, J., Creamer
, R., Ralphs
, M. H., and Gardner
, D. R. 2002. Association of a fungal endophyte with seed tissue and locoweed toxicity. Phytopathology
Stegelmeier, B. L., James, L. F., Panter, K. E., Gardner, D. R., Ralphs, M. H., and Molyneux, R. J. 1999. Dose response of sheep poisoned with locoweed (Oxytropis sericea). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 11:446–454.
Vallotton, A. D., and Sterling, T. M. 2002. Variation in swainsonine content among extraction methods and between locoweed genera. Proc. West. Soc. Weed Sci 55:18.
Welsh, S. L., Ralphs, M. H., Panter, K. E., Pfister, J. A., and James, L. F. 2007a. Locoweeds of North America; taxonomy and toxicity, pp. 20–29, in K. E. Panter, and J. A. Pfister (eds.). Poisonous Plants: Global Research and Solutions, CABI, Wallingford, UK.
Welsh, S. L. 2007b. North American Species of Astragalus Linnaeus (Leguminosae). A Taxonomic Revision. 932 p. M.L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, pp. 315–322, in M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. Sninsky, and T. J. White (eds.). PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and ApplicationsAcademic, San Diego.