Metabolomic Differentiation of Brassica rapa Following Herbivory by Different Insect Instars using Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
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The metabolic alterations of Brassica rapa (L.) leaves attacked by larvae of the specialist Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) and the generalist Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were investigated with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, followed by a multivariate data analysis. The principal component analysis (PCA) of 1H NMR spectra showed that metabolic changes in B. rapa leaves induced by the 2nd and the 4th instars were different from each other. However, the congestion of the one-dimensional 1H NMR spectrum made it difficult to identify discriminating metabolites. To overcome the spectral complexity, several two-dimensional NMR techniques were applied. Of those evaluated, J-resolved spectroscopy, which affords an additional coupling constant, provided a wide range of structure information on differentiating the metabolites. Based on the J-resolved spectra combined with PCA, the major signals contributing to the discrimination were alanine, threonine, glucose, sucrose, feruloyl malate, sinapoyl malate, and gluconapin.
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- Metabolomic Differentiation of Brassica rapa Following Herbivory by Different Insect Instars using Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Journal of Chemical Ecology
Volume 32, Issue 11 , pp 2417-2428
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Brassica rapa
- Plutella xylostella
- Spodoptera exigua
- Metabolic profiling
- Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
- Principal component analysis
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
- 2. Crop Protection Development Center, Directorate General of Crop Estate, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia, Jalan Asrama 124 Medan, 20126, Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
- 3. Section Plant Ecology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
- 4. Division of NMR, Institute of Chemistry, Gorlaeus Laboratories, P. O. Box 9502, 2300RA, Leiden, The Netherlands