, Volume 31, Issue 9, pp 1985-2002
Date: 17 Aug 2005

Exogenous Application of Jasmonic Acid Induces Volatile Emissions in Rice and Enhances Parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens Eggs by theParasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae

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Abstract

Jasmonate signaling pathway plays an important role in induced plant defense against herbivores and pathogens, including the emission of volatiles that serve as attractants for natural enemies of herbivores. We studied the volatiles emitted from rice plants that were wounded and treated with jasmonic acid (JA) and their effects on the host-searching behavior of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and its mymarid egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang. Female adults of N. lugens significantly preferred to settle on JA-treated rice plants immediately after release. The parasitoid A. nilaparvatae showed a similar preference and was more attracted to the volatiles emitted from JA-treated rice plants than to volatiles from control plants. This was also evident from greenhouse and field experiments in which parasitism of N. lugens eggs by A. nilaparvatae on plants that were surrounded by JA-treated plants was more than twofold higher than on control plants. Analyses of volatiles collected from rice plants showed that JA treatment dramatically increased the release of volatiles, which included aliphatic aldehydes and alcohols, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, n-heptadecane, and several as yet unidentified compounds. These results confirm an involvement of the JA pathway in induced defense in rice plants and demonstrate that the egg parasitoid A. nilaparvatae exploits plant-provided cues to locate hosts. We explain the use of induced plant volatiles by the egg parasitoid by a reliable association between planthopper feeding damage and egg presence.