CHANGES OVER TIME IN THE ALLELOCHEMICAL CONTENT OF TEN CULTIVARS OF RYE ( Secale cereale L.) Article DOI:
Cite this article as: REBERG-HORTON, S.C., BURTON, J.D., DANEHOWER, D.A. et al. J Chem Ecol (2005) 31: 179. doi:10.1007/s10886-005-0983-3 Abstract
Published studies focused on characterizing the allelopathy-based weed suppression by rye cover crop mulch have provided varying and inconsistent estimates of weed suppression. Studies were initiated to examine several factors that could influence the weed suppressiveness of rye: kill date, cultivar, and soil fertility. Ten cultivars of rye were planted with four rates of nitrogen fertilization, and tissue from each of these treatment combinations was harvested three times during the growing season. Concentrations of a known rye allelochemical DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-(2H)benzoxazine-3-one) were quantified from the harvested rye tissue using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phytotoxicity observed from aqueous extracts of the harvested rye tissue correlated with the levels of DIBOA recovered in harvested tissue. The amount of DIBOA in rye tissue varied depending on harvest date and rye cultivar, but was generally lower with all cultivars when rye was harvested later in the season. However, the late maturing variety ‘Wheeler’ retained greater concentrations of DIBOA in comparison to other rye cultivars when harvested later in the season. The decline in DIBOA concentrations as rye matures, and the fact that many rye cultivars mature at different rates may help explain why estimates of weed suppression from allelopathic agents in rye have varied so widely in the literature.
Key Words Allelopathy cover crop residue redroot pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.) goosegrass ( Eleusine indica L. Gaertn.) 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-(2H)benzoxazine-3-one DIBOA maturity phenology rye ( Secale cereale L.) References
Barnes, J. P. and Putnam A. R. 1983. Rye residues contribute to weed suppression in no-tillage cropping systems.
J. Chem. Ecol.
Barnes, J. P., Putnam, A. R., Burke, B. A., and Aasen, A. J. 1987. Isolation and characterization of allelochemicals in Rye Herbage.
Blum, U. 1995. The value of model plant-microbe-soil systems for understanding processes associated with allelopathic interactions pp. 127–131, Inderjit, K. M. M. Daskshini, and F. A. Einhellig, (eds.). Allelopathy: Organisms, Processes, and Applications. ACS Symposium Series No. 582. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
Blum, U., Shafer, S. R., and Lehman, M. E. 1999. Evidence for inhibitory allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in field soils: Concepts vs. an experimental model.
Crit. Rev. Plant Sci.
Burgos, N. R. and Talbert, R. E. 2000. Differential activity of allelochemicals from
in seedling bioassays.
Burgos, N. R., Talbert, R. E., and Mattice, J. D. 1999. Cultivar and age differences in the production of allelochemicals by
Cambier, V., Hance, T., and Hoffmann, E. D. 2000. Variation of DIMBOA and related compounds content in relation to the age and plant organ in maize.
Collantes, H. G., Gianoli, E., and Niemeyer, H. M. 1998. Changes in growth and chemical defenses upon defoliation in maize.
Copaja, S. V., Nicol, D., and Wratten, S. D. 1999. Accumulation of hydroxamic acids during wheat germination.
Creamer, N. G., Bennett, M. A., Stinner, B. R., Cardina, J., and Regnier, E. E. 1996. Mechanisms of Weed Suppression in Cover Crop-based Production Systems.
Foley, M. E. 1999. Genetic approach to the development of cover crops for weed management.
J. Crop Prod.
Friebe, A. 2001. Role of benzoxazinones in cereals.
J. Crop Prod
Gianoli, E., Rios, J. M., and Niemeyer, H. M. 2000. Allocation of a hydroxamic acid and biomass during vegetative development in rye.
Acta. Agri. Scand. Sect. B
Gierl, A. and Frey, M. 2001. Evolution of benzoxazinone biosynthesis and indole production in maize.
CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar
Inderjit, and Weston, L. A. 2000. Are laboratory bioassays for allelopathy suitable for prediction of field responses?
J. Chem. Ecol.
Masiunas, J. B., Weston, L. A., and Weller, S. C. 1995. The impact of rye cover crops on weed populations in a tomato cropping system.
Melansom, D., Chilton, M. D., Master-moore, D., and Chilton, W. S. 1997. A deletion in an indole synthase gene is responsible for the DIMBOA-deficient phenotype of bxbx maize.
Proc. Nati. Acad. Sci. USA
Mwaja, V., Masiunas, J. B., and Weston, L. A. 1995. The effect of fertility on biomass phytotoxicity and allelochemical content of cereal rye.
J. Chem. Ecol
Nagabhushana, G. G., Worsham, A. D., and Yenish, J. P. 2001. Allelopathic cover crops to reduce herbicide use in sustainable agricultural systems.
Nakagawa, E., Amano, T., Iria, N., and Iwamura, H. 1995. Non-induced cyclic hydroxamic acids in wheat during juvenile stage of growth.
Niemeyer, H. M. 1988. Hydroxamic acids (4-hydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazinon-3-ones), defence chemicals in the Gramineae.
Reberg-horton, S. C., Creamer, N. G., Burton, J. D., Ranells, N., and Mohler, C. L. 2001. Bioassay and field evaluation of rye cultivars for allelopathy.
Proc. Weed Sci. Soc. An. Meet.
Reberg-horton, S. C. 2002. Optimizing allelopathy and nitrogen scavenging in rye cover crops. PhD thesis. North Carolina State University.
Reberg-horton, S. C., Creamer, N. G., Danehower, D. A., Ma, G., Monks, D. W., Murphy, J. P., Ranells, N. N., Williamson, J. D., and Burton, J. D. 2003. Cultivar and maturation effects on the allelochemical content of ten cultivars of rye, vol. 57, p. 84, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting-Northeastern Weed Science Society.
Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS). 2002. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Version 8.02. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, 1082 p.
Shilling, D. G., Jones, L. A., Worsham, A. D., Parker, C. E., and Wilson, R. F. 1986. Isolation and identification of some phytotoxic compounds from aqueous extracts of rye (
Secale cerale L. J. Agric. Food Chem.
Sicker, D., Frey, M., Schulz, M., and Gierl, A. 2001. Role of natural benzoxazinones in the survival strategy of plants.
Internat. Rev. Cyt.
Teasdale, J. R. and Mohler, C. L. 2000. The quantitative relationship between weed emergence and the physical properties of mulches.
Weston, L. A. 1996. Utilization of allelopathy for weed management in agroecosystems.
Yenish, J. P., Worsham, A. D., and Chilton, W. S. 1995. Disappearance of DIBOA-glucoside, DIBOA, and BOA from Rye cover crop residue.
Zuniga, G. E., Argandona, V. H., Niemeyer, H. M., and Corcuera, L. J. 1983. Hydroxamic acid content in wild and cultivated gramineae.
Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005