, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 25-35,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Focus on Immunotherapy



Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a disease with limited treatment options. However, the ongoing elucidation of the mechanisms underlying this disease continues to support the development of not only novel agents, but also innovative approaches. Among these therapies, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy.


This review article summarizes the most recent data from investigations of immunotherapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (literature and congress searches current as of August 2011).


Immunotherapeutic strategies such as passive immunization, vaccines, and particularly checkpoint blockade have demonstrated some efficacy as single agents. Elucidation of effective combinations of agents and drug regimens is ongoing but will require continued careful investigation, including the standardization of surrogate endpoints in clinical trials.


It is hypothesized that the combination of immunotherapeutic agents with traditional and novel chemotherapeutics will potentiate the efficacy of the chemotherapeutics while maintaining manageable toxicity.