Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 339–346

MicroRNA in the Adaptive Immune System, in Sickness and in Health

Authors

    • VIB and University of Leuven
  • Michelle Linterman
    • Cambridge Institute for Medical ResearchUniversity of Cambridge
  • Li-Fan Lu
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10875-010-9378-5

Cite this article as:
Liston, A., Linterman, M. & Lu, L. J Clin Immunol (2010) 30: 339. doi:10.1007/s10875-010-9378-5

Abstract

Introduction

MicroRNA are emerging as key regulators of the development and function of adaptive immunity. These 19–24 nucleotide regulatory RNA molecules have essential roles in multiple faucets of adaptive immunity, from regulating the development of the key cellular players to the activation and function in immune responses.

Discussion

MicroRNA are involved in T cell and B cell differentiation in the thymus and bone marrow, and subsequent peripheral homeostasis. The contribution of specific microRNA to the adaptive immune response becomes even more apparent during the effector phases: class switching and germinal centre formation in B cells, differentiation into functional lineages in T cells, and activation of antigen-presentation cells through pattern-recognition pathways. With the capacity of microRNA to alter the survival and death of T and B cells, control over microRNA expression is essential to prevent adaptive immune cells from unregulated proliferation. MicroRNA can act both as ‘oncomirs’ and tumour suppressors, and thus dysregulation of microRNA in lymphocytes can cause malignancies.

Conclusion

In this review, we will describe the role of microRNA in generating a productive adaptive response, and the consequences if microRNA-mediated repression of lymphocytes is perturbed.

Keywords

MicroRNAB cellsregulatory T cellsT cellsdendritic cellscancer

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010