Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 29-37

First online:

In Vitro Differentiation of Human Monocytes into Dendritic Cells by Peptic–Tryptic Digest of Gliadin Is Independent of Genetic Predisposition and the Presence of Celiac Disease

  • Maryam RakhimovaAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine 1, University Erlangen-Nuernberg
  • , Birgit EsslingerAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine 1, University Erlangen-Nuernberg
  • , Anja Schulze-KrebsAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine 1, University Erlangen-Nuernberg
  • , Eckhart G. HahnAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine 1, University Erlangen-Nuernberg
  • , Detlef SchuppanAffiliated withDivision of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School
  • , Walburga DieterichAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine 1, University Erlangen-Nuernberg Email author 

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This study was done to further reveal the role of the innate immune system in celiac disease.


Dendritic cells were matured from venous blood of patients with active or treated celiac disease and DQ2–DQ8-positive or negative controls. Dendritic cells were treated with a peptic–tryptic digest of gliadin (500 μg/ml) and their activation was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting analysis, cytokine secretion, and their ability to elicit T cell proliferation.

Results and Discussion

Gliadin upregulated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-12 (p40) secretion in dendritic cells and induced strong expression of the maturation markers human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, CD25, CD83, and CD86 of all subjects irrespective of their genotype or the presence of disease, whereas the digest of bovine serum albumin showed no effect. However, gliadin-stimulated dendritic cells from active celiac showed enhanced stimulation of autologous T cells compared to the other groups.


Further research should be aimed at identifying the mechanisms that control inflammation in healthy individuals.


Celiac disease gliadin dendritic cell maturation