, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 109-116
Date: 27 Dec 2006

The Effect of Natural Killer Cell Killer Ig-Like Receptor Alloreactivity on the Outcome of Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

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Natural killer (NK) cell alloreactions against recipient cells in the setting of bone marrow transplantation have been associated with decreased rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and improved survival in transplant recipients with myeloid leukemia. These alloreactions are predicted by the absence of recipient HLA class I ligands for donor inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors (KIR). We hypothesized that donor NK cell alloreactions against recipient cells may affect the development of T and B-cell functions and incidence of GVHD in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Of the 156 patients with SCID who had received related bone marrow transplants without pretransplant chemotherapy or posttransplant GVHD prophylaxis, 137 patient–donor pairs were evaluated for the absence of recipient HLA class I ligands for donor inhibitory KIR. Analysis showed that the absence of a KIR ligand had no effect on the incidence or severity of GVHD (R 2 = 0.95, p = 0.84), development of T-cell function (R 2 = 1.05, p = 0.69), production of IgA (p = 0.46) or IgM (p = 0.33), or on 5-year survival (R 2 = 1.21, p = 0.10). Further, in patients possessing native NK cells, the absence of KIR ligands in donors for recipient-inhibitory KIR did not alter transplantation outcomes. This study suggests that inhibitory KIR/HLA interactions do not play a significant role in bone marrow transplantation for SCID.

An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-007-9116-9