Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Autoimmune Diseases
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Matrix metalloproteinases (also named matrixin or MMPs) are a major group of enzymes that regulate cell-matrix composition by using zinc for their proteolytic activities. They are essential for various normal biological processes such as embryonic development, morphogenesis, reproduction tissue resorption, and remodeling. Metalloproteinases also play a role in pathological processes including inflammation, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Herein we review the involvement of MMP-9 in a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, polymyositis and atherosclerosis. MMP-9 plays either a primary or secondary role in each one of those autoimmune diseases by its up or down-regulation. It is not expressed constantly but rather is induced or suppressed by many regulating molecules. This feature of MMP-9 along with its involvement in disease pathogenesis turns it into a target for therapy of autoimmune diseases.
- Chakraborti S, Mandal M, Das S, Mandal A, Chakraborti T: Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases: An overview. Mol Cell Biochem 253:269–285, 2003. CrossRef
- Mott JD, Werb Z: Regulation of matrix biology by matrix metalloproteinases. Curr Opin Cell Biol 16:558–564, 2004. CrossRef
- Nagase H, Woessner JF, Jr: Matrix metalloproteinases. J Biol Chem 274:21491–21494, 1999. CrossRef
- Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S, Chakraborti T, Sajal C: Clinical implications of matrix metalloproteinases. Mol Cell Biochem 252:305–329, 2003. CrossRef
- Van den Steen PE, Dubois B, Nelissen I, Rudd PM, Dwek RA, Opdenakker G: Biochemistry and molecular biology of gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37:375–536, 2002. CrossRef
- Opdenakker G, Van den Steen PE, Van Damme J: Gelatinase B: A tuner and amplifier of immune functions. Trends Immunol 22:571–579, 2001. CrossRef
- Opdenakker G, Van den Steen PE, Dubois B, Nelissen I, Van Coillie E, Masure S, Proost P, Van Damme J: Gelatinase B functions as regulator and effector in leukocyte biology. J Leukoc Biol 69:851–859, 2001.
- Nguyen M, Arkell J, Jackson CJ: Human endothelial gelatinases and angiogenesis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 33:960–970, 2001. CrossRef
- Matache C, Stefanescu M, Dragomir C, Tanaseanu S, Onu A, Ofiteru A, Szegli G: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and its natural inhibitor TIMP-1 expressed or secreted by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Autoimmun 20:323–331, 2003. CrossRef
- Faber-Elmann A, Sthoeger Z, Tcherniack A, Dayan M, Mozes E: Activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 is elevated in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Immunol 127:393–398, 2002. CrossRef
- Makowski GS, Ramsby ML: Concentrations of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 9 inversely correlate with autoimmune antibodies to double stranded DNA: Implications for monitoring disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Mol Pathol 56:244–247, 2003. CrossRef
- Konttinen YT, Halinen S, Hanemaaijer R, Sorsa T, Hietanen J, Ceponis A, Xu JW, Manthorpe R, Whittington J, Larsson A, Salo T, Kjeldsen L, Stenman UH, Eisen AZ: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 type IV collagenase/gelatinase implicated in the pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome. Matrix Biol 17:335–347, 1998. CrossRef
- Perez P, Goicovich E, Alliende C, Aguilera S, Leyton C, Molina C, Pinto R, Romo R, Martinez B, Gonzalez MJ: Differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases in labial salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 43:2807–2817, 2000. CrossRef
- Hanemaaijer R, Visser H, Konttinen YT, Koolwijk P, Verheijen JH: A novel and simple immunocapture assay for determination of gelatinase-B (MMP-9) activities in biological fluids: Saliva from patients with Sjogren's syndrome contain increased latent and active gelatinase-B levels. Matrix Biol 17:657–665, 1998. CrossRef
- Kikuchi K, Kubo M, Hoashi T, Tamaki K: Decreased MMP-9 activity in the serum of patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 27:301–305, 2002. CrossRef
- Kim WU, Min SY, Cho ML, Hong KH, Shin YJ, Park SH, Cho CS: Elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Res Ther 7:R71–R79, 2005. Epub 2004 Nov 10. CrossRef
- Kieseier BC, Schneider C, Clements JM, Gearing AJ, Gold R, Toyka KV, Hartung HP: Expression of specific matrix metalloproteinases in inflammatory myopathies. Brain 124:341–351, 2001. CrossRef
- Choi YC, Dalakas MC: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the muscle of patients with inflammatory myopathies. Neurology 54:65–71, 2000.
- Tchetverikov I, Lard LR, DeGroot J, Verzijl N, TeKoppele JM, Breedveld FC, Huizinga TW, Hanemaaijer R: Matrix metalloproteinases-3, -8, -9 as markers of disease activity and joint damage progression in early rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 62:1094–1099, 2003. CrossRef
- Gruber BL, Sorbi D, French DL, Marchese MJ, Nuovo GJ, Kew RR, Arbeit LA: Markedly elevated serum MMP-9 (gelatinase B) levels in rheumatoid arthritis: A potentially useful laboratory marker. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 78:161–171, 1996. CrossRef
- Leppert D, Ford J, Stabler G, Grygar C, Lienert C, Huber S, Miller KM, Hauser SL, Kappos L: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B) is selectively elevated in CSF during relapses and stable phases of multiple sclerosis. Brain 121(Pt 12):2327–2334, 1998. CrossRef
- Sastre-Garriga J, Comabella M, Brieva L, Rovira A, Tintore M, Montalban X: Decreased MMP-9 production in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients. Mult Scler 10:376–380, 2004. CrossRef
- Liuzzi GM, Trojano M, Fanelli M, Avolio C, Fasano A, Livrea P, Riccio P: Intrathecal synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with multiple sclerosis: Implication for pathogenesis. Mult Scler 8:222–228, 2002. CrossRef
- Kieseier BC, Kiefer R, Clements JM, Miller K, Wells GM, Schweitzer T, Gearing AJ, Hartung HP: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -7 are regulated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain 121(Pt 1):159–166, 1998. CrossRef
- Sherer Y, Shoenfeld Y: Immunomodulation for treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis. Autoimmun Rev 1:21–27, 2002. CrossRef
- Jiang X, Zeng HS, Guo Y, Zhou ZB, Tang BS, Li FK: The expression of matrix metalloproteinases-9, transforming growth factor-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta receptor I in human atherosclerotic plaque and their relationship with plaque stability. Chin Med J (Engl) 117:1825–1829, 2004.
- Chen F, Eriksson P, Hansson GK, Herzfeld I, Klein M, Hansson LO, Valen G: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and its regulators in the unstable coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Int J Mol Med 15:57–65, 2005.
- Sebastian Stintzing, MD, peter Heuschmann, MD, Letterio Barbera, MD, Matthias Ocker, MD Andreas Jung, PhD, Thomas Kirchner, MD, and Daniel Neureiter, MD, Erlangen, Muenster, and Bochum, Germany: Overexpression of MMP9 and Tissue Factor in unstable carotid plaques associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae, inflammation, and apoptosis. Ann Vasc Surg 19:1–10, 2005. CrossRef
- Shapiro S, Shoenfeld Y, Gilburd B, Sobel E, Lahat N: Intravenous gamma globulin inhibits the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in macrophages. Cancer 95:2032–2037, 2002. CrossRef
- Aljada A, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hofmeyer D, Tripathy D, Dandona P: Hydrocortisone suppresses intranuclear activator-protein-1 (AP-1) binding activity in mononuclear cells and plasma matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:5988–5991, 2001. CrossRef
- Profita M, Gagliardo R, Di Giorgi R, Bruno A, Riccobono L, Bonanno A, Bousquet J, Vignola AM: In vitro effects of flunisolide on MMP-9, TIMP-1, fibronectin, TGF-beta1 release and apoptosis in sputum cells freshly isolated from mild to moderate asthmatics. Allergy 59:927–932, 2004. CrossRef
- Rosenberg GA, Dencoff JE, Correa N, Reiners M, Ford CC: Effect of steroid on CNS matrix metalloproteinases in multiple sclerosis: Relation to blood-brain barrier injury. Neurology 46:1626–1632, 1996.
- Kieseier BC, Archelos JJ, Hartung HP: Different effects of simvastatin and interferon beta on the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases. Arch Neurol 61:929–932, 2004. CrossRef
- Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Autoimmune Diseases
Journal of Clinical Immunology
Volume 26, Issue 4 , pp 299-307
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Sjogren's syndrome
- systemic sclerosis
- rheumatoid arthritis
- multiple sclerosis
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Medicine ‘B’ & Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center Tel-Hashomer, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Jerusalem, Israel
- 2. Incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv, Israel
- 3. Department of Medicine ‘B’ & Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, 52621, Tel-Hashomer, Israel