Roles of vertical turbulent mixing in the ocean response to Typhoon Rex (1998)
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- Wada, A., Niino, H. & Nakano, H. J Oceanogr (2009) 65: 373. doi:10.1007/s10872-009-0034-8
How the role of vertical turbulent mixing (VTM) in sea surface cooling (SSC) varies with the moving speed of a tropical cyclone was examined for Typhoon Rex (1998) by using the Meteorological Research Institute Community Ocean Model (MRI.COM). The MRI.COM well reproduced TRMM/TMI three-day mean sea surface temperature (SST) fields along Rex’s track. During the fast-moving phase of Rex, SSC simulated by the MRI.COM was caused by shear-induced VTM on the right side of the track. During the slowly-moving phase, on the other hand, the Ekman-pumping area mostly overlapped the VTM area right behind Rex’s center. During the recurvature phase, cool water transported by the upwelling was more efficiently entrained into a mixed layer by the VTM for nearly a 1 near-inertial period after the passage of Rex. We then modified the entrainment formulation of Deardorff (1983), which was incorporated into a slab mixed-layer ocean model (SOM) so as to fit to the results simulated by the MRI.COM. The principal modifications are as follows: (1) consideration of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production caused by surface wave breaking; (2) increase in the coefficient for estimating dissipation to balance with TKE production due to turbulent transport; and (3) changing the initial guess for the critical Richardson number. These modifications led to an improvement of SST simulations by the SOM. The impact of the modifications on simulated SSTs turned out to be more significant than the impacts of initial mixed-layer depth and the difference between diurnally-varying and daily mean short-wave radiation.