Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 205–222

Testing the Structured Free Recall Intervention for Reducing the Impact of Bodyweight-Based Stereotypes on Performance Ratings in Immediate and Delayed Contexts

  • Cort W. Rudolph
  • Boris B. Baltes
  • Ludmila S. Zhdanova
  • Malissa A. Clark
  • Anne C. Bal

DOI: 10.1007/s10869-011-9240-7

Cite this article as:
Rudolph, C.W., Baltes, B.B., Zhdanova, L.S. et al. J Bus Psychol (2012) 27: 205. doi:10.1007/s10869-011-9240-7



This article investigates the efficacy of the Structured Free Recall Intervention (SFRI; J Bus Psychol 15:229–246, 2000a; Organ Behav Hum Decis Process 82:237–267, 2000b ) for reducing the impact of bodyweight-based stereotype endorsement on performance ratings, both immediately and when a time delay occurs between the observation and rating of performance.


512 undergraduates participated in a 2 × 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial experiment. A measure of bodyweight-based stereotype endorsement was pre-screened, and participants were randomly assigned to (a) either a no-delay or two-day time delay condition, (b) view either an average bodyweight or overweight ratee, and (c) undergo the SFRI or not.


Results suggest that (a) bodyweight-based stereotype endorsement predicts performance ratings for overweight ratees, (b) the SFRI is effective at reducing the impact of such stereotypes on performance ratings when conducted immediately after the observation of performance, and (c) the SFRI maintains this efficacy after a two-day delay between the observation and rating of performance.


These findings suggest that the best real-world application of the SFRI paradigm may be to situations with minimal delays between the observation and rating of performance, such as selection assessment centers or pre-employment interviews.


Drawing on theories from the cognitive information processing literature, this paper extends previous research regarding the efficacy of the SFRI by demonstrating that short time delays between performance observation and rating—a common organizational phenomena—have minimal observed effects on the efficacy of the SFRI as a performance rating intervention.


Performance ratingStereotype endorsementBodyweight-based biasStructured free recall intervention (SFRI)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cort W. Rudolph
    • 1
  • Boris B. Baltes
    • 2
  • Ludmila S. Zhdanova
    • 3
  • Malissa A. Clark
    • 4
  • Anne C. Bal
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA