Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 587–594

Executive control resources and snack food consumption in the presence of restraining versus facilitating cues


DOI: 10.1007/s10865-013-9528-3

Cite this article as:
Hall, P.A., Lowe, C. & Vincent, C. J Behav Med (2014) 37: 587. doi:10.1007/s10865-013-9528-3


Prior studies have documented a negative relationship between strength of executive control resources (ECRs) and frequency of snack food consumption. However, little is known about what effect environmental cues (restraining versus facilitating) have on the engagement of such control resources. We presented 88 healthy adults with standardized tests of ECRs followed by a bogus taste test for three appetitive snack foods. Participants were randomly assigned to receive instructions to eat the bare minimum to make their ratings (“restraint condition”), eat as much as they like (“facilitation condition”) or no special instructions. We surreptitiously measured the weight of food consumed during the taste test. Findings revealed a main effect of treatment condition, such that those in the restraint condition ate significantly less than those in either of the other conditions; however, this main effect was qualified by an ECR by treatment condition interaction. Specifically, those in the facilitation condition showed a strong negative association between ECR strength and amount of food consumed, whereas those in the restraint and control conditions did not. Findings suggest that the effect of ECR strength on consumption of snack food varies substantially by the characteristics of contextual cues.


Executive function Snack foods Obesity Weight gain Cognitive 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter A. Hall
    • 1
  • Cassandra Lowe
    • 1
  • Corita Vincent
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Applied Health SciencesUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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