Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM)
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large disparity in HIV prevalence rates between young Black and White Americans, including young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Research focusing on individual behaviors has proven insufficient to explain the disproportionately high rate of HIV among Black YMSM. The purpose of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of the pronounced racial disparity in HIV by evaluating whether YMSM are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors as a function of their partner’s race. Participants included 117 YMSM from a longitudinal study evaluating lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth (ages 16–20 at baseline), who reported characteristics and risk behaviors of up to 9 sexual partners over an 18-month period. Results indicated that participants were less likely to have unprotected sex with Black partners, and this finding was not driven by a response bias (i.e., Black YMSM did not appear to be minimizing their reports of unprotected sex). Furthermore, there was support for the hypothesis that participants’ sexual networks were partially determined by their race insofar as sexual partnerships were much more likely to be intra-racial (as opposed to interracial). It is possible that dyad- and sexual network-level factors may be needed to understand racial disparities in HIV among YMSM.
- Anderson, R. M. (1999). Transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted infections. In K. K. Holmes, P. F. Sparling, P.-A. Mardh, S. M. Lemon, W. E. Stamm, P. Piot, & J. N. Wasserheit (Eds.), Sexually transmitted diseases (pp. 25–38). New York: McGraw-Hill, CO, Inc.
- Berry, M., Raymond, H., & McFarland, W. (2007). Same race and older partner selection may explain higher HIV prevalence among black men who have sex with men. AIDS, 21(17), 2349–2350. CrossRef
- Bingham, T. A., Harawa, N. T., Johnson, D. F., Secura, G. M., & MacKellar, D. A. (2003). The effect of partner characteristics on HIV infection among African American men who have sex with men in the Young Men’s Survey, Los Angeles, 1999–2000. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(1 Suppl A), 39–52. CrossRef
- CDC. (2009). HIV/AIDS and young men who have sex with men. US DHHS.
- CDC. (2010). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Atlanta, GA: US DHHS.
- Donenberg, G., Emerson, E., Bryant, F., Wilson, H., & Weber-Shifrin, E. (2001). Understanding AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: Links to psychopathology and peer relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(6), 642–653. CrossRef
- Easterbrook, P., Chmiel, J., Hoover, D., Saah, A., Kaslow, R., Kingsley, L., et al. (1993). Racial and ethnic differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroprevalence among homosexual and bisexual men. American Journal of Epidemiology, 138(6), 415–429.
- Garofalo, R., Herrick, A., Mustanski, B. S., & Donenberg, G. R. (2007). Tip of the Iceberg: young men who have sex with men, the Internet, and HIV risk. American Journal of Public Health, 97(6), 1113–1117. CrossRef
- Harawa, N., Greenland, S., Bingham, T., et al. (2004). Associations of race/ethnicity with HIV prevalence and HIV-related behaviors among young men who have sex with men in 7 urban centers in the United States. AIDS, 35(5), 526–536.
- Koblin, B., Husnik, M., Colfax, G., Huang, Y., & Madison, M. (2006). Risk factors for HIV infection among men who have sex with men. AIDS, 20, 731–739. CrossRef
- Laumann, E. O., & Youm, Y. (1999). Racial/ethnic group differences in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: A network explanation. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 26(5), 250–261. CrossRef
- Lemp, G., Hirozawa, A. M., Givertz, D., Nieri, G. N., Anderson, L., & Lindegren, M. L. (1994). Seroprevalence of HIV and risk behaviors among young homosexual and bisexual men: The San Franciso/Berkeley Young Men’s Survey. JAMA, 272, 449–454. CrossRef
- Millett, G., Flores, S., Peterson, J., & Bakeman, R. (2007). Explaining disparities in HIV infection among black and white men who have sex with men: A meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors. AIDS, 21(15), 2083–2091. CrossRef
- Millett, G., Peterson, J., Wolitski, R., & Stall, R. (2006). Greater risk for HIV infection of black men who have sex with men: A critical literature review. American Journal of Public Health, 96(6), 1007–1019. CrossRef
- Mustanski, B. S., Garofalo, R., & Emerson, E. M. (2010). Mental health disorders, psychological distress, and suicidality in a diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2426–2432. CrossRef
- Nappi, C. M., Thakral, C., Kapungu, C., et al. (2009). Parental monitoring as a moderator of the effect of family sexual communication on sexual risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care. AIDS and Behavior, 13(5), 1012–1020. CrossRef
- Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage Publications.
- Raymond, H., & McFarland, W. (2009). Racial mixing and HIV risk among men who have sex with men. AIDS and Behavior, 13, 630–637. CrossRef
- Ruiz, J., & Facer, M. (1998). Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection and unprotected anal intercourse among young men who have sex with men. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 25, 100–107. CrossRef
- Snowden, J., Raymond, H., & McFarland, W. (2009). Prevalence of seroadaptive behaviors of men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2004. British Medical Journal, 85(6), 469–476.
- Tieu, H., Murrill, C., Xu, G., & Koblin, A. (2009). Sexual partnering and HIV risk among Black men who have sex with men: New York City. Journal of Urban Health, 87, 113–121. CrossRef
- Torian, L., Makki, H., Menzies, I., Murrill, C., & Weisfuse, I. (2002). HIV infection in men who have sex with men, New York City Department of Health Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics, 1990–1999. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 73–78. CrossRef
- Valleroy, L., MacKellar, D., Karon, J., Rosen, D., McFarland, W., Shehan, D., et al. (2000). HIV prevalence and associated risks in young men who have sex with men. JAMA, 284(2), 198–204. CrossRef
- Vitinghoff, E., Douglas, J., Judon, F., McKiman, D., MacQueen, K., & Buchinder, S. (1999). Per-contact risk of human immunodeficiency virus transmission between male sexual partners. American Journal of Epidemiology, 150(3), 306–311.
- Unpacking the racial disparity in HIV rates: the effect of race on risky sexual behavior among Black young men who have sex with men (YMSM)
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 34, Issue 4 , pp 237-243
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- HIV disparity
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
- 2. Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
- 3. University of Illinois at Chicago Medical Center, 1747 W Roosevelt Road, Room 252, Chicago, IL, USA