Effects of Choir Singing or Listening on Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Cortisol, and Emotional State
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The present study investigates the effects of choir music on secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), cortisol, and emotional states in members of a mixed amateur choir. Subjects participated in two conditions during two rehearsals 1 week apart, namely singing versus listening to choral music. Saliva samples and subjective measures of affect were taken both before each session and 60 min later. Repeated measure analyses of variance were conducted for positive and negative affect scores, S-IgA, and cortisol. Results indicate several significant effects. In particular, singing leads to increases in positive affect and S-IgA, while negative affect is reduced. Listening to choral music leads to an increase in negative affect, and decreases in levels of cortisol. These results suggest that choir singing positively influences both emotional affect and immune competence. The observation that subjective and physiological responses differed between listening and singing conditions invites further investigation of task factors.
- Ader, R., Felten, D. L., and Cohen, N. (Eds.) (1991). Psychoneuroimmunology, 2nd ed., Academic Press, San Diego.
- Bartlett, D. (1996). Physiological responses to music and sound stimuli. In Hodges, D. A. (Ed.), Handbook of Music Psychology, 2nd ed., IMR Press, San Antonio, pp. 343–385.
- Beck, R. J., Cesario, T. C., Yousefi, A., and Enamoto, H. (1999). Choral singing, performance perception, and immune system changes in salivary immunoglobulin Aand cortisol. Music Percept. 18: 87–106.
- Bruhn, H. (2000). Musiktherapie. Geschichte, Theorien, Methoden [Music therapy. History, Theories, Methods]. Hogrefe, Göttingen.
- Clift, S. M., and Hancox, G. (2001). The perceived benefits of singing: Findings from preliminary surveys of a university college choral society. J. R. Soc. Promot. Health 121: 248–256.
- Cripps, A. W., Gleeson, M., and Clancy, R. L. (1991). Ontogeny of the mucosal immune response in children. In Mestecky, J., Blair, C., and Ogra, P. L. (Eds.), Immunology of Milk in the Neonate, Plenum, New York, pp. 87–92.
- Davis, W., and Thaut, M. (1989). The influence of preferred relaxing music on measures of state anxiety, relaxation, and physiological responses. J. Music Ther. 26: 168–187.
- Drummond, P. D., and Hewson-Bower, B. (1996). Increased psychosocial stress and de-creased mucosal immunity in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. J. Psychosom. Res. 43: 271–278.
- Duffy, D., and Ball, G. (2002). Song predicts immunocompetence in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 01PB0839: 1–6.
- Gerra, G., Zaimovic, A., Francini, D., Palladino, M., Giucastro, G., Reali, N., Maestri, D., Caccavari, R., Delsignore, R., and Brambilla, F. (1998). Neuroendocrine responses of healthy volunteers to ‘techno-music’: relationships with personality traits and emotional state. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 28: 99–111.
- Goldstein, A. (1980). Thrills in response to music and other stimuli. Phys. Psychol. 8: 126–129.
- Grape, C., Sandgren, M., Hansson, L. O., Ericson, M., and Theorell, T. (2003). Does singing promote well-being? — An empirical study of professional and amateur singers during a singing lesson. Integr. Physiol. Behav. Sci. 38: 65–74.
- Green, R. G., and Green, M. L. (1987). Relaxation increases salivary immunoglobulin A. Psychol. Rep. 61: 623–629.
- Grossmann, T. (2000). Gibbon songs and human music from an evolutionary perspective.
- In Wallin, N. L., Merker, B., and Brown, S. (Eds.), The Origins of Music, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 103–123.
- Hauser, M. D. (2000). The sound of the fury: Primate vocalizations as reflections of emotion and thought. In Wallin, N. L., Merker, B., and Brown, S. (Eds.), The Origins of Music, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 411–425.
- Hennig, J., Lucks, A., Rohrmann, S., and Netter, P. (1999). Mechanisms of stress induced changes in S-IgA. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 107: 28–29.
- Kirschbaum, C., and Hellhammer, D. H. (1994). Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: Recent developments and applications. Psychoneuroendocrinology 19: 313–333.
- Kreutz, G., Bongard, S., and von Jussis, J. (2002a). Kardiovaskuläre Wirkungen beim Musikhö. Zur Bedeutung von musikalischer Expertise und Emotion. [Cardiovascu-lar effects of music listening. The influence of musical expertise and emotion]. Musicae Scientiae 6: 257–278.
- Kreutz, G., Bongard, S., von Jussis, J., and Hodapp, V. (2002b). Cardiovascular responses to music listening in musicians and nonmusicians. In Stevens, C., Burnham, D., McPherson, G., Schubert, E., and Renwick, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sidney, July 17–21, CD-Rom.
- Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C. W., and Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der “Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) [Investigations using a German adaptation of the “Positive and Negative Affect Schedule” (PANAS)]. Diagnostica 42: 139–156.
- Krumhansl, C. L. (1997). An exploratory study of musical emotions and physiology. Can. J. Psychol. 51: 336–352.
- Levman, B. (2000). Western theories of music origin, historical and modern. Musicae Scientiae 4: 185–213.
- Mackinnon, L., and Hooper, S. (1994). Mucosal (secretory) immune system responses to exercise of varying intensity and during overtraining. Int. J. Sports Med. 18: S179–S183.
- Martin, R. A., and Dobbin, J. P. (1988). Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglobulin A: Evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 18: 93–105.
- McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., Rein, G., and Watkins, A. D. (1996). Music enhances the effect of positive emotional states on salivary IgA. Stress Med. 12: 167–175.
- McKinney, C. H., Antoni, M. H., Kumar, M., Tims, F. C., and McCabe, P. (1997a). Effects of guided imagery and music (GIM) therapy on mood and cortisol in healthy adults. Health Psychol. 16: 1–12.
- McKinney, C. H., Tims, F. C., Kumar, A. M., and Kumar, M. (1997b). The effect of selected classical music and spontaneous imagery on plasmaâ-endorphin. J. Behav. Med. 20: 85–99.
- Nettle, B. (2000). An ethnomusicologist contemplates universals in musical sound and musical culture. In Wallin, N. L., Merker, B., and Brown, S. (Eds.), The Origins of Music, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 463–472.
- Nyclicek, I., Thayer, J. F., and Van Doornen, L. J. P. (1997). Cardiorespiratory differentiation of musically-induced emotions. J. Psychophysiol. 11: 304–321.
- Panksepp, J. (1995). The emotional sources of “Chills” induced by music. Music Percept. 13: 171–207.
- Panksepp, J., Meeker, R., and Bean, N. J. (1979). The neurochemical control of crying. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 12: 437–443.
- Pratt, R. R., and Spintge, R. (Eds.) (1996). Music Medicine, Vol.II, MMBMusic, St. Louis, MO.
- Rein, G., and McCraty, R. M. (1995). Effects of positive and negative emotions on salivary IgA. J. Adv. Med. 8: 87–105.
- Ring, C., Carroll, D., Willemsen, G., Cooke, J., Ferraro, A., and Drayson, M. (1999). Secretory immunoglobulin A and cardiovascular activity during mental arithmetic and paced breathing. Psychophysiology 36: 602–609.
- Stone, A., Cox, D., Valdimarsdottir, H., Jandorf, L., and Neale, J. (1987a). Evidence that secretory IgA antibody is associated with daily mood. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 52: 988–993.
- Stone, A., Cox, D., Valdimarsdottir, H., and Neale, J. (1987b). Secretory IgA as a measure of immunocompetence. J. Hum. Stress 13: 136–140.
- Stratton, V., and Zalanowski, A. (1994). Affective impact of music vs. lyrics. Empirical Stud. Arts 12: 173–184.
- Sulzer, J. (1967). Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste [General Theory of Fine Arts], Georg Olms, Hildesheim.
- Thaut, M. H., and Davis, W. B. (1993). The influence of subject-selected versus experimenter-chosen music on affect, anxiety, and relaxation. J. Music Ther. 30: 210.
- Tomasi, T. B. (1972). Secretory immunoglobulins. N. Engl. J. Med. 7: 500–506.
- Tsao, C., Gordon, T., Maranto, C., Leran, C., and Murasko, D. (1992). The effects of music and biological imagery on immune response. In Maranto, C. (Ed.), Applications of Music in Medicine, National Association for Music Therapy, Washington, DC, pp. 85–121.
- Unwin, M. M., Kenny, D. T., and Davis, P. J. (2002). The effects of group singing on mood. Psychol. Music 30: 175–185.
- Valentine, E., and Evans, C. (2001). The effects of solo singing, choral singing and swimming on mood and physiological indices. Br. J. Med. Psychol. 74: 115–120.
- Van Rood, Y. R., Bogaards, M., Goulmy, E., and Houwelingen, H. C. (1993). The effects of stress and relaxation on the in vitro immune response in man: A meta-analytic study. J. Behav. Med. 16: 163–181.
- Västfjäll, D. (2002). Emotion induction through music: Areview of the musical mood induction procedure [Special issue 2001–2002]. Musicae Scientiae 173–209.
- Watson, D., Clark, L. A., and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 54: 1063–1070.
- Effects of Choir Singing or Listening on Secretory Immunoglobulin A, Cortisol, and Emotional State
Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume 27, Issue 6 , pp 623-635
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Music Education, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany
- 2. Department of Psychology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt, Germany