Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 39–49

Effect of the antitumoral alkylating agent 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial respiration: role of mitochondrially bound hexokinase

  • Clara Rodrigues-Ferreira
  • Ana Paula Pereira da Silva
  • Antonio Galina
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10863-012-9413-8

Cite this article as:
Rodrigues-Ferreira, C., da Silva, A.P.P. & Galina, A. J Bioenerg Biomembr (2012) 44: 39. doi:10.1007/s10863-012-9413-8

Abstract

The alkylating agent 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) has been used as an anti-tumoral drug due to its anti-proliferative property in hepatomas cells. This propriety is believed to disturb glycolysis and respiration, which leads to a decreased rate of ATP synthesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the alkylating agent 3-BrPA on the respiratory states and the metabolic steps of the mitochondria of mice liver, brain and in human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), O2 consumption and dehydrogenase activities were rapidly dissipated/or inhibited by 3-BrPA in respiration medium containing ADP and succinate as respiratory substrate. 3-BrPA inhibition was reverted by reduced glutathione (GSH). Respiration induced by yeast soluble hexokinase (HK) was rapidly inhibited by 3-BrPA. Similar results were observed using mice brain mitochondria that present HK naturally bound to the outer mitochondrial membrane. When the adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) was blocked by the carboxyatractiloside, the 3-BrPA effect was significantly delayed. In permeabilized human hepatoma HepG2 cells that present HK type II bound to mitochondria (mt-HK II), the inhibiting effect occurred faster when the endogenous HK activity was activated by 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG). Inhibition of mt-HK II by glucose-6-phosphate retards the mitochondria to react with 3-BrPA. The HK activities recovered in HepG2 cells treated or not with 3-BrPA were practically the same. These results suggest that mitochondrially bound HK supporting the ADP/ATP exchange activity levels facilitates the 3-BrPA inhibition reaction in tumors mitochondria by a proton motive force-dependent dynamic equilibrium between sensitive and less sensitive SDH in the electron transport system.

Keywords

3-Bromopyruvate Mitochondrial hexokinase Liver mitochondria HepG2 cells Hepatocellular carcinoma 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clara Rodrigues-Ferreira
    • 1
  • Ana Paula Pereira da Silva
    • 2
  • Antonio Galina
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Bioenergética e Fisiologia Mitocondrial, Programa de Bioquímica e Biofísica Celular, Instituto de Bioquímica MédicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Metabolismo Energético, Departamento de Química, Setor de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências ExatasUniversidade Federal Rural do Rio de JaneiroSeropédicaBrazil

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