Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 460–474

Evaluating Self-Report Measures of Narcissistic Entitlement


DOI: 10.1007/s10862-013-9352-7

Cite this article as:
Ackerman, R.A. & Donnellan, M.B. J Psychopathol Behav Assess (2013) 35: 460. doi:10.1007/s10862-013-9352-7


The present work further delineates the psychometric properties of two self-report measures of entitlement: the Psychological Entitlement Scale (PES) and the Entitlement/Exploitativeness subscale from the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-EE). Past research shows that these measures diverge in their relations with psychological distress and self-esteem. We draw upon conceptual distinctions between normal and pathological narcissism to explain these differences. We also provide additional reliability information for each measure. Study 1 (n = 436) uses self-report data on exploitive entitlement, non-exploitive entitlement, and the traits of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) to evaluate the nomological nets of the PES and NPI-EE. Study 2 (n = 497) uses self-report data on self-esteem and antisocial behaviors to evaluate the criterion-related validity of the PES and NPI-EE; it also replicates the Study 1 FFM profile results. Study 3 (n = 142) investigates the test-retest reliability of the PES and NPI-EE (along with estimates of their internal consistencies) across a 2-week interval. The PES had strong retest reliability and showed a pattern of correlates characteristic of grandiosity (e.g., higher levels of antagonism [immodesty in particular]); the PES also had a strong positive association with non-exploitive entitlement and a modest positive association with self-esteem. The NPI-EE captured some features consistent with vulnerability (e.g., links with higher Neuroticism [anger in particular] and somewhat lower self-esteem) and also had adequate retest reliability in light of its internal consistency. Implications for the assessment of narcissistic entitlement are discussed.


Entitlement Narcissism Psychological entitlement scale Narcissistic personality inventory Test-retest reliability 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychological Sciences, School of Behavioral and Brain SciencesThe University of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA
  2. 2.Michigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA