Article

Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 10, pp 2783-2792

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Ultra-porous titanium oxide scaffold with high compressive strength

  • Hanna TiainenAffiliated withDepartment of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo
  • , S. Petter LyngstadaasAffiliated withDepartment of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo
  • , Jan Eirik EllingsenAffiliated withOral Research Laboratory, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo
  • , Håvard J. HaugenAffiliated withDepartment of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo Email author 

Abstract

Highly porous and well interconnected titanium dioxide (TiO2) scaffolds with compressive strength above 2.5 MPa were fabricated without compromising the desired pore architectural characteristics, such as high porosity, appropriate pore size, surface-to-volume ratio, and interconnectivity. Processing parameters and pore architectural characteristics were investigated in order to identify the key processing steps and morphological properties that contributed to the enhanced strength of the scaffolds. Cleaning of the TiO2 raw powder removed phosphates but introduced sodium into the powder, which was suggested to decrease the slurry stability. Strong correlation was found between compressive strength and both replication times and solid content in the ceramic slurry. Increase in the solid content resulted in more favourable sponge loading, which was achieved due to the more suitable rheological properties of the ceramic slurry. Repeated replication process induced only negligible changes in the pore architectural parameters indicating a reduced flaw size in the scaffold struts. The fabricated TiO2 scaffolds show great promise as load-bearing bone scaffolds for applications where moderate mechanical support is required.