Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 1461-1475

Extracting hydroxyapatite and its precursors from natural resources

  • Muhammad AkramAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • , Rashid AhmedAffiliated withDepartment of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • , Imran ShakirAffiliated withDepartment of Sustainable Energy, King Saud University
  • , Wan Aini Wan IbrahimAffiliated withDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • , Rafaqat HussainAffiliated withIbnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Email author 


Healing of segmental bone defects remain a difficult problem in orthopedic and trauma surgery. One reason for this difficulty is the limited availability of bone material to fill the defect and promote bone growth. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a synthetic biomaterial, which is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals and, therefore, it can be used as a filler to replace damaged bone or as a coating on implants to promote bone in-growth into prosthetic implants when used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial applications. HA is a stoichiometric material with a chemical composition of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, while a mineral component of bone is a non-stoichiometric HA with trace amounts of ions such as Na+, Zn2+, Mg2+, K+, Si2+, Ba2+, F, CO3 2−, etc. This review looks at the progress being made to extract HA and its precursors containing trace amount of beneficial ions from biological resources like animal bones, eggshells, wood, algae, etc. Properties, such as particle size, morphology, stoichiometry, thermal stability, and the presence of trace ions are studied with respect to the starting material and recovery method used. This review also highlights the importance of extracting HA from natural resources and gives future directions to the researcher so that HA extracted from biological resources can be used clinically as a valuable biomaterial.