Hydroxyapatite formation on metallurgical grade nanoporous silicon particles
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- Chadwick, E.G., Clarkin, O.M. & Tanner, D.A. J Mater Sci (2010) 45: 6562. doi:10.1007/s10853-010-4745-4
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Studies into bone-like apatite or hydroxyapatite (HA) growth on potential biomaterials when in contact with simulated body fluid (SBF) not only establish a general method for determining bioactivity but coincidently lead to the design of new bioactive materials in biomedical and tissue engineering fields. Previous studies of HA growth on porous silicon (PS) have examined electrochemically etched silicon substrates after immersion in a SBF. This study differs from previous work in that it focuses on characterising HA growth on chemically etched metallurgical grade nanoporous silicon particles. The PS used in this study is comprised of nanosponge particles with disordered pore structures with pore sizes ranging up to 10 nm on micron-sized particles. The silicon particles are analysed before and after immersion into SBF using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicate that a HA layer forms on the surface of the nanosponge particles. Experimental analysis indicates that the morphology and calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (Ca/P) verify the formation of crystalline HA on the nanoporous silicon particles.