, Volume 43, Issue 9, pp 3028-3057
Date: 15 Mar 2008

Calcium orthophosphate cements for biomedical application

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Abstract

In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases after mixing form a viscous paste that after being implanted sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with a newly forming bone), calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique of non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities, and easy manipulation. Nearly perfect adaptation to the tissue surfaces in bone defects and a gradual bioresorption followed by new bone formation are additional distinctive advantages of calcium orthophosphate cements. Besides, reinforced formulations are available; those are described as calcium orthophosphate composites. The discovery of self-setting cements has opened up a new era in the medical application of calcium orthophosphates; several commercial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many more compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.