, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 107-116

Piezoresponse force microscopy and recent advances in nanoscale studies of ferroelectrics

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In this paper, we review recent advances in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) with respect to nanoscale ferroelectric research, summarize the basic principles of PFM, illustrate what information can be obtained from PFM experiments and delineate the limitations of PFM signal interpretation relevant to quantitative imaging of a broad range of piezoelectrically active materials. Particular attention is given to orientational PFM imaging and data interpretation as well as to electromechanics and kinetics of nanoscale ferroelectric switching in PFM.