, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 55-77

A Logic of Strategic Ability Under Bounded Memory

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Abstract

We study the logic of strategic ability of coalitions of agents with bounded memory by introducing Alternating-time Temporal Logic with Bounded Memory (ATLBM), a variant of Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL). ATLBM accounts for two main consequences of the assumption that agents have bounded memory. First, an agent can only remember a strategy that specifies actions in a bounded number of different circumstances. While the ATL-formula \({\langle\!\langle{C}\rangle\!\rangle\square\varphi}\) means that coalition C has a joint strategy which will make φ true forever, the ATLBM-formula \({\langle\!\langle{C}\rangle\!\rangle^n\square\varphi}\) means that C has a joint strategy which for each agent in C specifies what to do in no more than n different circumstances and which will make φ true forever. Second, an agent has bounded recall—a strategy can only take the last m states of the system into account. We use the logic to study the interaction between strategic ability, bounded number of decisions, bounded recall and incomplete information. We discuss the logical properties and expressiveness of ATLBM, and its relationship to ATL. We show that ATLBM can express properties of strategic ability under bounded memory which cannot be expressed in ATL.