, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 343-370
Date: 25 May 2010

Internationalization as an entrepreneurial process

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When firms cross-borders it is, by definition, internationalization. We believe that often internationalization should be seen as either a by-product of a firm’s efforts to improve its position within its network or networks, or as the result of an entrepreneurial action. We consider three theoretical approaches as a starting point and breathe life into them with a rich case study. We suggest adjustments to Johanson and Vahlne’s business network internationalization process model, an update of the Uppsala internationalization process model, to emphasize the entrepreneurial aspects of the process.

The authors wish to thank JIEN’s reviewers and Hamid Etemad, the editor, for their helpful suggestions on this article. We are grateful to The Swedish Research Council for funding this project. We thank Jan Smith for his generous cooperation.