Evaluation of secondary forests as alternative habitats to primary forests for flower-visiting insects
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- Taki, H., Makihara, H., Matsumura, T. et al. J Insect Conserv (2013) 17: 549. doi:10.1007/s10841-012-9539-3
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Although primary forests are important for biological conservation, the value of secondary forests for forest-dependent organisms needs to be evaluated when habitat restoration is required. We examined whether flower-visiting insects can use secondary forests as alternative habitats to primary forests. In particular, we compared assemblages of bees (Anthophila) and flower longhorn beetles (Lepturinae: Cerambycidae) in young secondary, mature secondary, and primary forests. Our results showed that more bee species were captured in primary and mature secondary forests than in young secondary forests, and flower longhorn beetle species were captured more frequently in primary forests than in mature and young secondary forests. Ordination showed that the communities in the three forest types were not statistically identical, which indicated that secondary forests cannot provide an absolute alternative habitat to primary forests for bees and flower longhorn beetles. However, the results also suggest that as secondary forests mature, more primary forest species would be able to use secondary forests as habitats. This implies that restoration from other land uses, such as monoculture plantations, to secondary forests could help to promote the faunal biodiversity of primary forests.