Journal of Electronic Testing

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 193–210

QCA Circuits for Robust Coplanar Crossing

  • Sanjukta Bhanja
  • Marco Ottavi
  • Fabrizio Lombardi
  • Salvatore Pontarelli
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s10836-006-0551-y

Cite this article as:
Bhanja, S., Ottavi, M., Lombardi, F. et al. J Electron Test (2007) 23: 193. doi:10.1007/s10836-006-0551-y

Abstract

In this paper, different circuits of Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) are proposed for the so-called coplanar crossing. Coplanar crossing is one of the most interesting features of QCA because it allows for mono-layered interconnected circuits, whereas CMOS technology needs different levels of metalization. However, the characteristics of the coplanar crossing make it prone to malfunction due to thermal noise or defects. The proposed circuits exploit the majority voting properties of QCA to allow a robust crossing of wires on the Cartesian plane. This is accomplished using enlarged lines and voting. A Bayesian Network (BN) based simulator is utilized for evaluation; results are provided to assess robustness in the presence of cell defects and thermal effects. The BN simulator provides fast and reliable computation of the signal polarization versus normalized temperature. Simulation of the wire crossing circuits at different operating temperatures is provided with respect to defects and a quantitative metric for performance under temperature variations is proposed and assessed.

Keywords

QCA coplanar crossing Bayesian network TMR temperature characterization defect characterization 

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjukta Bhanja
    • 1
  • Marco Ottavi
    • 2
  • Fabrizio Lombardi
    • 2
  • Salvatore Pontarelli
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  3. 3.Dipartimento di Ingegneria ElettronicaUniversità di Roma “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly

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