, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 303-315
Date: 07 Jul 2007

Angiogenesis in implantation

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Implantation failure and early pregnancy loss are common following natural conceptions and they are particularly important clinical hurdles to overcome following assisted reproduction attempts. The importance of adequate vascular development and maintenance during implantation has recently become a major focus of investigation.

Materials and methods

Review of current published literature was undertaken to summerize the cells and cell products that regulate tissue vascularity during implantation.


Vascular development at the maternal fetal interface can be regulated by a number of different cell types; two principal candidates are trophoblast and natural killer cells. A wide range of soluble factors, some with well established angiogenic functions as well as other more novel factors, can contribute to vascular development and maintenance at the maternal–fetal interface.


Robust vascular development occurs during implantation and early placentation of normal pregnancies. Studies to define the extent and mechanisms by which defects in vascularity contribute to human implantation failure and early miscarriage need to be undertaken.

Vascular development during implantation is mediated by numerous cell types and cell products and aberrant vascularity likely contributes to implantation failure and early pregnancy loss.