Risks Associated with Genetic Modification: – An Annotated Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Natural Science Publications


DOI: 10.1007/s10806-005-0639-x

Cite this article as:
Weaver, S.A. & Morris, M.C. J Agric Environ Ethics (2005) 18: 157. doi:10.1007/s10806-005-0639-x


We present an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks associated with genetic modification. Risks associated with the expression of the transgenic material include concerns over resistance and non-target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as such, but would be present for any conventionally produced crops with the same heritable traits. In contrast, other risks are a direct consequence of the method used in gene manipulation. These come about because of the unstable nature of the transgene and vectors used to insert it, and because of unpredictable interactions between the transgene and the host genome. The debate over the release of genetically modified organisms is not merely a scientific one; it encompasses economics, law, ethics, and policy. Any discussion on these levels does, however, need to be informed by sound science. We hope that the scientific references provided here will provide a useful starting point for further debate.


animal welfareannotated bibliographybiotechnologyBtenvironmentgenetic modificationGMOshuman healthrisk assessmenttransgene



amplified fragment length polymorphism


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linkage disequilibrium

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Studies Institute of Geography School of Earth SciencesVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand