Original Paper

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 993-1007

Comprehensive Comparison of Self-administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

  • Takeshi NishiyamaAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Aichi Medical University Email author 
  • , Masako SuzukiAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatry, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences
  • , Katsunori AdachiAffiliated withDepartment of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Nagoya City University School of Nursing
  • , Satoshi SumiAffiliated withDepartment of Pediatrics, Nagoya Western Rehabilitation Center for Children with Disabilities
  • , Kensuke OkadaAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Senshu University
  • , Hirohisa KishinoAffiliated withLaboratory of Biometry and Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo
  • , Saeko SakaiAffiliated withDepartment of Child Development, United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University
  • , Yoko KamioAffiliated withDepartment of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry
  • , Masayo KojimaAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences
    • , Sadao SuzukiAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences
    • , Stephen M. KanneAffiliated withDepartment of Public Health, Aichi Medical UniversityDepartment of Health Psychology, Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Missouri-Columbia

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We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, the Social Responsiveness Scale2-Adult Self report (SRS2-AS), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The SRS2-AS and the AQ each had several short forms that we also examined, bringing the total to 11 forms. Though all QAT questionnaires showed acceptable levels of test–retest reliability, the AQ and SRS2-AS, including their short forms, exhibited poor internal consistency and discriminant validity, respectively. The SATQ excelled in terms of classical test theory and due to its short length.


Quantitative autistic traits (QAT) Broader autism phenotype (BAP) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Reliability Validity