Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 43, Issue 7, pp 1606–1622

Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-012-1707-5

Cite this article as:
O’Haire, M.E. J Autism Dev Disord (2013) 43: 1606. doi:10.1007/s10803-012-1707-5


The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. Reported outcomes included improvements for multiple areas of functioning known to be impaired in ASD, namely increased social interaction and communication as well as decreased problem behaviors, autistic severity, and stress. Yet despite unanimously positive outcomes, most studies were limited by many methodological weaknesses. This review demonstrates that there is preliminary “proof of concept” of AAI for ASD and highlights the need for further, more rigorous research.


Animal-assisted interventionAnimal-assisted therapyAutismChildrenHuman-animal interactionSocial functioning

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia