Birth Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in the San Francisco Bay Area by Demographic and Ascertainment Source Characteristics
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- Windham, G.C., Anderson, M.C., Croen, L.A. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2011) 41: 1362. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1160-2
Using standardized methods for multi-source surveillance, we calculated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) among children born in a racially diverse region in 1994 or 1996 as 4.7/1000 live births. Children with ASD before age 9 were identified through chart abstraction at health-related sources; three-quarters were being served by the state-wide Department of Developmental Services. In adjusted models, we found a male:female ratio of 6:1, a doubling of ASD prevalence among children of older mothers (40+), and lower prevalence with lower paternal education. Children of Black or Hispanic mothers had lower prevalence than those of White, non-Hispanic mothers, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment. Prevalence in children of Asian mothers was similar to Whites. Potential under-counting is discussed.