Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The study’s objectives were to assess diagnostic stability of initial autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in community settings and identify factors associated with diagnostic instability using data from a national Web-based autism registry. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relative risk of change in initial ASD diagnosis as a function of demographic characteristics, diagnostic subtype, environmental factors and natural history. Autistic disorder was the most stable initial diagnosis; pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified was the least stable. Additional factors such as diagnosing clinician, region, when in time a child was initially diagnosed, and history of autistic regression also were significantly associated with diagnostic stability in community settings. Findings suggest that the present classification system and other secular factors may be contributing to increasing instability of community-assigned labels of ASD.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
- Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network 2006 Principal Investigators. (2009). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, United States, 2006. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 58(SS-10), 1–21.
- Bristol, M. M., Cohen, D. J., Costello, E. J., Denckla, M., Eckberg, T. J., Kallen, R., et al. (1996). State of the science in autism: Report to the National Institutes of Health. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(2), 121–154. CrossRef
- Cederlund, M., Hagberg, B., Billstedt, E., Gillberg, I. C., & Gillberg, C. (2008). Asperger’s syndrome and autism: A comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than four years after original diagnosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 72–85. CrossRef
- Charman, T., & Baird, G. (2002). Practitioner review: Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(3), 289–305. CrossRef
- Charman, T., Taylor, E., Drew, A., Cockerill, H., Brown, J., & Baird, G. (2005). Outcome at 7 years of children diagnosed with autism at age 2: Predictive validity of assessments conducted at 2 and 3 years of age and pattern of symptom change over time. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(5), 500–513. CrossRef
- Chawarska, K., Klin, A., Paul, R., & Volkmar, F. (2007). Autism spectrum disorder in the second year: Stability and change in syndrome expression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(2), 128–138. CrossRef
- Cox, D. R. (1972). Regression models and life-tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 34(2), 187–220.
- Evans, J. R., & Mathur, A. (2005). The value of online surveys. Internet Research, 15(2), 195–219. CrossRef
- Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Ashwal, S., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Dawson, G., et al. (2000). Practice parameter: Screening and diagnosis of autism: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society. Neurology, 55(4), 468–479.
- Gosling, S. D., Vasire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004). Should we trust Web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about the Internet questionnaires. AmericanPsychologist, 59(2), 93–104. CrossRef
- Hernandez, R. N., Feinberg, R. L., Vaurio, R., Passanante, N. M., Thompson, R. E., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Autism spectrum disorder in fragile x syndrome: A longitudinal evaluation. American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, 149A, 1125–1137. CrossRef
- Hosmer, D. W., Lemeshow, S., & May, S. (2008). Applied survival analysis: Regression modeling of time to event data (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley-Interscience.
- Huang, H. (2006). Do print and web surveys provide the same results? Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 334–350. CrossRef
- Itzchak, E. B., & Zachor, D. A. (2009). Changes in autism classification with early intervention: Predictors and outcomes. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 967–976. CrossRef
- Johnson, C. P., Myers, S. M., & The Council on Children with Disabilities. (2007). Clinical report: Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 120(5), 1183–1215. CrossRef
- Kleinman, J. M., Ventola, P. E., Pandy, J., Verbalis, A. D., Barton, M., Hodgson, S., et al. (2008). Diagnostic stability in very young children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 606–615. CrossRef
- Kogan, M. D., Blumberg, S. J., Schieve, L. A., Boyle, C. A., Perrin, J. M., Ghandour, R. M., et al. (2009). Prevalence of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder among children in the US, 2007. Pediatrics, 124(4), 1–9.
- Lord, C., & Luyster, R. (2006). Early diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorders. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 6, 189–194. CrossRef
- Lord, C., Risi, S., DiLavor, P. S., Shulman, C., Thurn, A., & Pickles, A. (2006). Autism from 2 to 9 years of age. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 694–701. CrossRef
- Mahoney, W., Szatmari, P., Maclean, J. E., Bryson, S. E., Bartolucci, G., Walter, S. D., et al. (1998). Reliability and accuracy of differentiating between pervasive developmental disorder subtypes. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(3), 278–285. CrossRef
- Moss, J., Magiati, I., Charman, T., & Howlin, P. (2008). Stability of the Autism diagnostic interview-revised from pre-school to elementary school age in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1081–1091. CrossRef
- Rosenberg, R. E., Daniels, A. M., Law, J. K., Law, P. A., & Kaufmann, W. E. (2009). Trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses: 1994–2007. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39(8), 1099–1111. CrossRef
- Rutter, M., Bailey, A., & Lord, C. (2003). Social communication questionnaire (SCQ). Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
- Scambler, D. J., Hepburn, S. L., & Rogers, S. J. (2006). A two-year follow-up on risk status identified by the checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), S104–S110. CrossRef
- StataCorp. (2007). Stata statistical software (Release 10) [Computer software]. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
- Stone, W. L., Lee, E. B., Ashford, L., Brissie, J., Hepburn, S. L., Coonrod, E. E., et al. (1999). Can autism be diagnosed accurately in children under three years? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 219–226. CrossRef
- Szatmari, P. (2000). The classification of autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 45(8), 731–738.
- Turner, L. M., & Stone, W. L. (2007). Variability in outcome for children with ASD diagnosis at age 2. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(8), 793–802. CrossRef
- Turner, L. M., Stone, W. L., Pozdol, S. L., & Coonrod, E. E. (2006). Follow-up of children with autism spectrum disorders from age 2 to age 9. Autism, 10, 243–264. CrossRef
- United States Census Bureau. (2009). Census regions and divisions of the United States. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf.
- U.S. Department of Health, Human Services, Health Resources, Services Administration, Maternal, Child Health Bureau. (2009). The National Survey of Children’s Health 2007. Rockville, Maryland: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- University of Washington. (2009). Rural health research center rural-urban commuting area codes. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from http://depts.washington.edu/uwruca/download2006.html.
- van Daalen, E., Kemner, C., Dietz, C., Swinkles, S. H. N., Buitelaar, J. K., & van Engeland, H. (2009). Inter-rater reliability and stability of diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in children identified through screening at very young age. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 663–674. CrossRef
- Walker, D. R., Thompson, A., Zwaigenbaum, L., Goldberg, J., Bryson, S. E., Mahoney, W. J., et al. (2004). Specifying PDD-NOS: A comparison of PDD-NOS, Asperger syndrome, and autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(2), 172–180. CrossRef
- Wiggins, L. D., Baio, J., & Rice, C. (2006). Examination of the time between first evaluation and first autism spectrum diagnosis in a population—based sample. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27(2), S79–S87. CrossRef
- Williams, M. E., Atkins, M., & Soles, T. (2009). Assessment of Autism in community settings: Discrepancies n classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 660–669. CrossRef
- Wilson, A., & Laskey, N. (2003). Internet based marketing research: A serious alternative to traditional research methods? Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 21(2), 79–84. CrossRef
- Stability of Initial Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Community Settings
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume 41, Issue 1 , pp 110-121
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer US
- Additional Links
- Diagnosis stability
- Autism spectrum disorders
- Community settings
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Medical Informatics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, 3825 Greenspring Avenue, Painter Building 1st Floor, Baltimore, MD, 21211, USA
- 2. Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 3. Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 4. University of Michigan Autism and Communication Disorders Center (UMACC), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
- 5. Center for Genetic Disorders of Cognition & Behavior, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA
- 6. Departments of Pathology, Neurology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, and Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA