American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: Third edition text revision (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: Fourth edition (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: Fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV-TR)
. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRef
Blacher, J., & McIntyre, L. (2006). Syndrome specificity and behavioural disorders in young adults with intellectual disability: Cultural differences in family impact. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities,
Brereton, A., Tonge, B., & Einfeld, S. (2006). Psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism compared to young people with intellectual disability. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
CDC. (2006). Parental report of diagnosed autism in children aged 4–17 years. MMWR,
Chambers, W. J., Puig-Antich, J., Hirsch, M., Paez, P., Ambrosini, P. J., Tabrizi, M. A., et al. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semistructured interview. Test-retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children, present episode version. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42(7), 696–702.
deBruin, E. I., Ferdinand, R. F., Meester, S., De Nijs, F. A., & Verheij, F. (2007). High rates of psychiatric co-morbidty in PDD-NOS. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Ebert, D., Speck, O., Konig, A., Berger, M., Hennig, J., & Hohagen, F. (1997). 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence for neuronal loss in the cingulated gyrus and the right striatum. Psychological Research,
Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., Fleiss, J. L., & Cohen, J. (1976). The global assessment scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance. Archives of General Psychiatry,
Esbensen, A. J., Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., & Ruedrich, S. (2003). Reliability and validity of an assessment instrument for anxiety, depression, and mood among individuals with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33
Fombonne, E. (2003). The prevalence of autism. JAMA,
Fombonne, E., Heavey, L., Smeeth, L., Rodrigues, L. C., Cook, C., Smith, P. G., et al. (2004). Validation of the diagnosis of autism in general practitioner records. BMC Public Health,
Fombonne, E., & Chakrabarti, S. (2001). No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella-induced autism. Pediatrics,
Frazier, J. A., Biederman, J., Bellordcre, C. A., Garfield, S. B., Geller, B., Coffey, B. J., et al. (2001). Should the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder be considered in children with pervasive development disorder? Journal of Attention Disorders,
Gadow, K. D., Devincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2004). Psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with PDD and clinic and comparison samples. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Gadow, K. D., Devincent, C. J., Pomeroy, J., & Azizian, A. (2005). Comparison of DSM-IV symptoms in elementary school-aged children with PDD versus clinic and community samples. Autism,
Geller, D. A., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Bellordre, C. A., Kim, G. S., Hagermoser, L., et al. (2001). Disentangling chronological age from age of onset in children and adolescents with obsessive–compulsive disorder. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology,
Ghaziuddin, M., Weidmer-Mikhail, E., & Ghaziuddin, N. (1998). Comorbidity of Asperger syndrome: A preliminary report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research,
(Pt 4), 279–283.PubMed
Gillberg, C. (1992). Autism and autistic-like conditions: Subclasses among disorders of empathy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
Goldstein, S., & Schwebach, A. (2004). The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Green, J., Gilchrist, A., Burton, D., & Cox, A. (2000). Social and psychiatric functioning in adolescents with Asperger syndrome compared with conduct disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Harpaz-Rotem, I., & Rosenheck, R. A. (2004). Changes in outpatient psychiatric diagnosis in privately insured children and adolescents from 1995–2000. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,
Herring, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., Tonge, B., Sweeney, D., & Einfeld, S. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities Research,
Hollingshead, A. B. (1975). Four factor index of social status. New Haven: Yale Press.
Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics,
Kobayashi, R., & Murata, T. (1998). Behavioural characteristics of 187 young adults with autism. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences,
Langen, M., Durston, S., Staal, W. G., Palmen, S. J., & van Engeland, H. (2007). Caudate nucleus is enlarged in high-functioning medication-naive subjects with autism. Biological Psychiatry, 62(3), 262–266 (Epub 2007 Jan 16).
Lecavalier, L. (2006). Behavioral and emotional problems in young people with pervasive developmental disorders: relative prevalence, effects of subject characteristics, and empirical classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Lecavalier, L., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Edwards, M. C. (2009). Validation of DSM-IV model of psychiatric syndromes in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Lee, D. O., & Ousley, O. Y. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinic sample of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology,
Levitt, J. G., et al. (2003). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of the brain in childhood autism. Biological Psychiatry,
Leyfer, O. T., Folstein, S. E., Bacalman, S., Davis, N. O., Dinh, E., & Morgan, J. (2006). Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: Interview development and rates of disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
McDougle, C. J., Scahill, L., McCracken, J. T., Aman, M. G., Tierney, E., Arnold, L. E., et al. (2000). Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. Background and rationale for an initial controlled study of risperidone. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9
(1), 201–224. Review.PubMed
McDougle, C. J., Stigler, K. A., & Posey, D. J. (2003). Treatment of aggression in children and adolescents with autism and conduct disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,
Muris, P., Steerneman, P., Merckelbach, H., Holdrinet, I., & Meesters, C. (1998). Comorbid anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12(4), 387–393.
Murphy, D. G., Critchley, H. D., Schmitz, N., McAlonan, G., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D., et al. (2002). Asperger syndrome: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of brain. Archives of General Psychiatry,
Nikolov, R. N., Bearss, K. E., Lettinga, J., Erickson, C., Rodowski, M., Aman, M. G., et al. (2009). Gastrointestinal symptoms in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Orvaschel, H. (1994). Schedule for affective disorder and schizophrenia for school-age children epidemiologic version. Ft. Lauderdale: Nova Southeastern University, Center for Psychological Studies.
Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, J. (1987). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children: Epidemiologic Version. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova University.
Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. (2002). Risperidone in children with autism and serious behavioral problems. New England Journal of Medicine,
Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. (2005). Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Archives of General Psychiatry,
Rojas, D. C., Peterson, E., Winterrowd, E., Reite, M. L., Rogers, S. J., & Tregellas, J. R. (2006). Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior symptoms. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 56.
Rosenberg, D. R., MacMaster, F. P., Keshavan, M. S., Fitzgerald, K. D., Stewart, C. M., & Moore, G. J. (2000). Decrease in caudate glutamatergic concentrations in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder patients taking paroxetine. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1096–1103.
Russell, E., & Sofronoff, K. (2005). Anxiety and social worries in children with Asperger syndrome. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry,
Scahill, L. (2005). Diagnosis and evaluation of pervasive developmental disorders. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,
Scarone, S., Colombo, C., Livian, S., Abbruzzese, M., Ronchi, P., Locatelli, M., et al. (1992). Increased right caudate nucleus size in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Detection with magnetic resonance imaging. Psychiatry Research,
Sears, L. L., Vest, C., Mohamed, S., Bailey, J., Ranson, B. J., & Piven, J. (1999). An MRI study of the basal ganglia in autism. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry,
StataCorp. (2007). Stata statistical software: Release 10. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
Steinhausen, H.-C., & Metzke, C. (2004). Differentiating the behavioural profile in autism and mental retardation and testing of a screener. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
Sterling, L., Dawson, G., Estes, A., & Greenson, J. (2008). Characteristics associated with presence of depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Sukhodolsky, D. G., Scahill, L., Gadow, K. D., Arnold, L. E., Aman, M. G., McDougle, C. J., et al. (2008). Parent-rated anxiety symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: Frequency and association with core autism symptoms and cognitive functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,
Sverd, J. (2003). Psychiatric disorders in individuals with pervasive developmental disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Practice,
Sverd, J., Sheth, R., & Fuss, J. (1995). Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents. Child Psychiatry and Human Development,
Szatmari, P., Bartolucci, G., & Bremner, R. (1989). Asperger’s syndrome and autism: Comparison of early history and out-come. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology,
Taylor, B., Miller, E., Lingam, R., Andrews, N., Simmons, A., & Stowe, J. (2002). Measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: Population study. British Medical Journal,
Towbin, R. E. (1997). Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, 2nd edn.
Vickerstaff, S., Heriot, S., Wong, M., Lopes, A., & Dossetor, D. (2007). Intellectual ability, self-perceived social competence, and depressive symptomatology in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,
Weisbrot, D. M., Gadow, K. D., DeVincent, C. J., & Pomeroy, J. (2005). The presentation of anxiety in children with pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology,
Wing, L. (1981). Asperger’s syndrome: A clinical account. Psychological Medicine,
Wolff, S. (1991a). “Schizoid” personality in childhood and adult life: I. Vagaries of diagnostic labeling. British Journal of Psychiatry,
Wolff, S. (1991b). Schizoid personality in childhood and adult life: III. The childhood clinical picture. British Journal of Psychiatry,
Wozniak, J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S., & Al, E. (1997a). Mania in children with pervasive developmental disorder revisited. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
Wozniak, J., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Frazier, J., Kim, J., Millstein, R., et al. (1997b). Mania in children with pervasive developmental disorder revisited. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1552–1559 (discussion 1559–1560).
Yoshida, Y., & Uchiyama, T. (2004). The clinical necessity for assessing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) symptoms in children with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,