Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 39, Issue 10, pp 1487–1492

Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

  • Alene Anello
  • Abraham Reichenberg
  • Xiaodong Luo
  • James Schmeidler
  • Eric Hollander
  • Christopher J. Smith
  • Connor M. Puleo
  • Lauren A. Kryzak
  • Jeremy M. Silverman
Brief Report

DOI: 10.1007/s10803-009-0755-y

Cite this article as:
Anello, A., Reichenberg, A., Luo, X. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2009) 39: 1487. doi:10.1007/s10803-009-0755-y

Abstract

The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (<30, 30–34, 35–39, 40–44, 45+) and found that the M:F ratio was significantly decreased with increasing paternal age groups and remained so after also adjusting for maternal age. No significant relationship between maternal age group and the M:F ratio was observed. This study suggests that the M:F ratio is reduced with increasing paternal age consistent with de novo genetic or genomic anomalies arising more frequently as men age and then conceive children.

Keywords

Paternal ageMaternal ageSex ratioGeneticsGenomic anomaliesCopy number variants

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alene Anello
    • 1
  • Abraham Reichenberg
    • 2
    • 4
  • Xiaodong Luo
    • 2
  • James Schmeidler
    • 2
  • Eric Hollander
    • 2
  • Christopher J. Smith
    • 2
    • 5
  • Connor M. Puleo
    • 2
    • 6
  • Lauren A. Kryzak
    • 2
  • Jeremy M. Silverman
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Harvard UniversityCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryMount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical CenterBronxUSA
  4. 4.Institute of PsychiatryLondonUK
  5. 5.Southwestern Autism Research and Resources CenterPhoenixUSA
  6. 6.Temple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA