Original Paper

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 39, Issue 10, pp 1392-1400

First online:

Laughter Differs in Children with Autism: An Acoustic Analysis of Laughs Produced by Children With and Without the Disorder

  • William J. HudenkoAffiliated withVanderbilt UniversityDepartment of Psychology, Ithaca College Email author 
  • , Wendy StoneAffiliated withVanderbilt University
  • , Jo-Anne BachorowskiAffiliated withVanderbilt University

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Few studies have examined vocal expressions of emotion in children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that during social interactions, children diagnosed with autism would exhibit less extreme laugh acoustics than their nonautistic peers. Laughter was recorded during a series of playful interactions with an examiner. Results showed that children with autism exhibited only one type of laughter, whereas comparison participants exhibited two types. No group differences were found for laugh duration, mean fundamental frequency (F0) values, change in F0, or number of laughs per bout. Findings are interpreted to suggest that children with autism express laughter primarily in response to positive internal states, rather than using laughter to negotiate social interactions.


Autism Laughter Emotion Affect Expression Acoustics