Brief Report: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Can Evolve into ADHD: Case Illustrations Article DOI:
10.1007/s10803-005-5066-3 Cite this article as: Fein, D., Dixon, P., Paul, J. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2005) 35: 525. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-5066-3 Abstract
Despite prominent attentional symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) the relationship between PDD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has received little direct examination. In addition, outcome studies of children with PDD often focus on language, educational placement, or adaptive skills, but seldom on loss of the PDD diagnosis or change to another clinical syndrome. We present three cases in detail, and tabular data on eight more, that illustrate a clinical presentation in which prototypical cases of PDD evolve into clear-cut cases of ADHD from early to middle childhood.
Keywords ADHD autism loss of the PDD diagnosis outcome PDD References Albrant, D. 2000 PhA drug treatment protocols: Management of pediatric acute otitis media introduction Journal of the American Pharmacological Association 40 599 608 Google Scholar American Psychiatric Association 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)4 Author Washington, DC Google Scholar Cabib, S., Puglisi-Allegra, S., Ventura, R. 2002 The contribution of comparative studies in inbred strains of mice to the understanding of the hyperactive phenotype Behavioural Brain Research 130 103 109 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Clark, T., Feehan, C., Tinline, C., Vostanis, P. 1999 Autistic symptoms in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder European Journal of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 8 50 55 CrossRef Google Scholar Cox, A., Klein, K., Charman, T., Baird, G., Baron-Cohen, S., Swettenham, J., Drew, A., Wheelwright, S. 1999 Autism spectrum disorders at 20 and 42 months of age: Stability of clinical and ADI-R diagnosis Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 719 732 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Damasio, A., Maurer, R. 1978 A neurological model of childhood autism Archives of Neurology 35 777 786 PubMed Google Scholar DuPaul, G. J., Power, T. J., Anastopoulos, A. D., Reid, R. 1998ADHD rating scale-IV: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretation Guilford Press NY Google Scholar Frazier, J. A., Biederman, J., Bellordre, C. A., Garfield, S. B., Geller, D. A., Coffey, B. J., Faraone, S. V. 2001 Should the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder be considered in children with pervasive developmental disorder? Journal of Attention Disorders 4 203 211 Google Scholar Gillberg, C. 1992 Autism and autistic-like conditions: Subclasses among disorders of empathy Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 33 813 842 PubMed Google Scholar Gillberg, C. 2003a ADHD and DAMP: A general health perspective Child and Adolescent Mental Health 8 106 113 CrossRef Google Scholar Gillberg, C. 2003b Emerging evidence that AD/HD and DCD interact multiplicatively: Reply Child Adolescent Mental Health 8 117 CrossRef Google Scholar Gillberg, C., Gillberg, I., Steffenburg, F. 1992 Siblings and parents of children with autism: A controlled population- based study Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 34 389 398 PubMed Google Scholar Goldstein, S., Schwebach, A. J. 2004 The comorbidity of pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Results of a retrospective chart review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34 329 339 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Green-Snyder, L., Joy, S., Fein, D., Robins, D., Brooklier, S., Waterhouse, L. 2003 Pervasive developmental disorders Schiffer, R. Rao, S. Fogel, B. eds. Textbook of neuropsychiatry2 Williams & Wilkins Baltimore, MD 503 551 Google Scholar Hamden, B. 2000 Efficacy of methylphenidate among children with autism and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders 30 245 255 CrossRef Google Scholar Kennedy, D. 2002The ADHD autism connection Waterbrook Press Colorado Springs Google Scholar Kinsbourne, M. 1991 Overfocusing: An apparent subtype of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder Amir, N. Rapin, I. Braski, D. eds. Pediatric neurology: Behavior and cognition of the child with brain dysfunction, Pediatric Adolescent Medicine Karger Basel 18 35 Google Scholar Madras, B., Miller, G., Fischman, A. 2002 The dopamine transporter: Relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Behavioural Brain Research 130 57 63 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., Lovaas, O. I. 1993 Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment American Journal of Mental Retardation 97 359 372 PubMed Google Scholar
McGrath , L., Joseph, R., Tadevosyan, O., Folstein, S., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2002). Overlapping ADHD symptoms in autism: Relationship to executive functioning. Poster Presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research
Oades, R. 2002 Dopamine may be ‘hyper’ with respect to noradrenaline metabolism, but ‘hypo’ with respect to seratonin metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Behavioural Brain Research 130 97 102 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Ozonoff, S., Jensen, J. 1999 Brief report: Specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29 171 177 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Pennington, B., Ozonoff, S. 1996 Executive functions and developmental psychopathology Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37 51 87 PubMed Google Scholar Russell, V. 2002 Hypodopaminergic and hyperoadrenergic activity in the prefrontal cortex slices of an animal model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The spontaneously hypertensive rat Behavioural Brain Research 130 191 196 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Rutter, M., Yule, W. 1994 Reading Difficulties Rutter, M. Taylar, E. Hersov, L. eds. Child and Adolescent Physchiatry: Modern Approaches3 Blackwell Scientific Publications Oxford Google Scholar Solanto, M. 2002 Dopamine dysfunction in ADHD: Integrating clinical and basic neuroscience research Behavioural Brain Research 130 65 71 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Towbin, K. E. 2003 Strategies for pharmacologic treatment of high functioning autism and Asberger syndrome Child Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 12 23 45 CrossRef Google Scholar Vigiano, D., Sadile, A. 2002 A morphometric evidence for a hyperfunctioning mesolimbic system in an animal model of ADHD Behavioural Brain Research 130 181 189 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Volkmar, F. 2001 Pharmacological interventions in autism: Theoretical and practical issues Journal of Clinical Child Adolescent Psychiatry 30 80 87 Google Scholar Wigg, K., Zai, G., Schachar, R., Tannock, R., Roberts, W., Malone, M., Kennedy, J., Barr, C. 2002 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the gene for dopamine beta-hydroxylase American Journal of Psychiatry 159 1046 1048 CrossRef PubMed Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005