Variation in Early Developmental Course in Autism
and its Relation with Behavioral Outcome at 3–4 Years of Age
Cite this article as: Werner, E., Dawson, G., Munson, J. et al. J Autism Dev Disord (2005) 35: 337. doi:10.1007/s10803-005-3301-6 Abstract
The aims of the present study were to describe variations in the early course of development in autism by utilizing an in-depth parent interview that incorporated techniques to improve accuracy of parent recall, and to examine the relation between variations in early developmental course in autism and behavioral outcome at 3–4 years of age. The Early Development Interview, which consisted of questions about child’s behavior in several domains from birth through 2 years of age, was created and administered to parents of 72 3–4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder and 34 3–4-year-old children with developmental delay, who were matched on mental and chronological age, and 39 1–4-year-old typically developing children, who were matched to the clinical groups on mental age. At 3–4 years of age, children were administered standardized measures (some clinician administered and some parent report); these included verbal and nonverbal IQ, autism symptom severity, and adaptive and aberrant behavior. Based on the Early Development Interview, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were reported to have elevated symptoms in the social and regulatory domains by 3–6 months. By 12–15 months, parents of children with ASD reported significantly higher levels of social symptoms than parents of children with developmental delay. At 3–4 years of age, children with autism with early vs. late onset of symptoms, and with vs. without a history of loss of skills (regression) were not found to differ on standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal IQ and observational measures of autism symptom severity.
Keywords Autism regression early course outcome prognosis References
American Psychiatric Association. (1994) DSM-IV Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC.
Baranek G. T. (1999). Autism during infancy: A retrospective video analysis of sensory-motor andsocial behaviors at 9–12 months of age
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 213–224. Brown Prelock, J. P 1995 Brief report: The impact of regression on language development in autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 25 305 309 Google Scholar Cohen, J. 1988Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences2 Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Google Scholar Davidovitch, M., Glick, L., Holtzman, G., Tirosh, E., Safir, M. P 2000 Developmental regression in autism: Maternal perception Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30 113 119 Google Scholar Dawson, G., Osterling, J., Meltzoff, A., Kuhl, P 2000 Case study of the development of an infant with autism from birth to two years of age Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 21 299 313 Google Scholar Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P. J., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., Gravel, J. S., Johnson, C. P., Kallan, R. J., Levy, S. E., Minshew, N. J., Prizant, B. M., Rapin, I., Rogers, S. J., Stone, W., Teplin, S., Tuchman, R. F., Volkmar, F. R 2000 Practice Parameters: The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29 439 484 Google Scholar Harper, J., Williams, S 1975 Age and type of onset as critical variables in early infantile autism Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia 5 25 35 Google Scholar Hollingshead, 1975Four Factor Index of social Yale University New Haven, CT Google Scholar Hoshino, Y., Keneko, M., Yashima, Y., Kumashiro, H., Volkmar, F., Cohen, D 1987 Clinical features of autistic children with setback course in their infancy Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology 41 237 246 Google Scholar Kanner, L. 1943 Autistic disturbances of affective contact Nervous Child 2 217 250 Google Scholar Keller, M., Lavori, P., Friedman, B., Nielsen, E., Endicott, J., MacDonald-Scott, P., Andreasen, N 1987 The longitudinal interval follow-up evaluation Archives of General Psychiatry 44 40 548 Google Scholar Kobayashi, R., Murata, T 1993 Setback phenomenon in autism and long-term prognosis Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 98 296 303 Google Scholar Kurita, H. 1985 Infantile autism with speech loss before the age of 30 months Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 24 191 196 Google Scholar Lord, C. 1995 Follow up of two year olds referred for possible autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 36 1365 1382 Google Scholar Lord, C., Risi, S., Lambrecht, L., Cook Jr., E. H., Leventhal, B. L., DiLavore, P. C., Pickles, A., Rutter, M 2000 The autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic: A standard measure of social and communication deficits associated with the spectrum of autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30 205 223 Google Scholar Lord Rutter, C. M., LeCouteur, A 1994 Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised: A revised version of the autism diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24 659 685 Google Scholar Maestro, S., Casella, C., Milone, A., Muratori, F., Palacio- Espasa, F 1999 Study of the onset of autism through home movies Psychopathology 32 292 300 Google Scholar Mullen, E. 1997Manual for the Mullen scales of early learning: AGS edition American Guidance Service, Inc Circle Pines, MN Google Scholar Osterling, J., Dawson, G 1994 Early recognition of children with autism: A study of first birthday home video tapes Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 24 247 257 Google Scholar Osterling, J., Dawson, G., Munson, J 2002 Early recognition of one year old infants with autism spectrum disorder versus mental retardation: A study of first birthday party home videotapes Development and Psychopathology 14 239 51 Google Scholar Perneger, T. V. 1998 Whatȁ9s wrong with Bonferroni adjustments British Medical Journal 316 1236 1238 Google Scholar Rapin, I., Katzman, R 1998 Neurobiology of autism Annals of Neurology 43 7 14 Google Scholar Rogers, S., DiLalla, D 1990 Age of symptom onset in young children with pervasivedevelopmental disorders Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 29 863 872 Google Scholar Short, A., Schopler, E 1988 Factors relating to age of onset in autism Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 18 207 216 Google Scholar Shrout, P. E., Fleiss, J. L 1979 Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability Psychological Bulletin 86 420 428 Google Scholar Tuchman, R. F., Rapin, I 1997 Regression in pervasive developmental disorders: seizures andepileptiform electroencephalogram correlates Pediatrics 99 560 566 Google Scholar Volkmar, F., Cohen, D 1989 Disintegrative disorder or “late-onset” autism Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 30 717 724 Google Scholar Volkmar, F. R., Stier, D. M., Cohen, D. J 1985 Age of recognition of pervasive developmental disorder American Journal of Psychiatry 142 1450 1452 Google Scholar Werner Dawson, E. G., Osterling, J., Dinno, N 2000 Brief Report: Recognition of autism spectrum disorders before one year of age: A retrospective study based on home video tapes Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 30 157 162 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005