Asperger’s Syndrome: A Comparison of Clinical Diagnoses and Those Made According to the ICD-10 and DSM-IV Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Woodbury-Smith, M., Klin, A. & Volkmar, F. J Autism Dev Disord (2005) 35: 235. doi:10.1007/s10803-004-2002-x
The diagnostic criteria for Asperger Syndrome (AS) according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV have been criticized as being too narrow in view of the rules of onset and precedence, whereby autism takes precedence over AS in a diagnostic hierarchy. In order to investigate this further, cases from the DSM-IV multicenter study who had been diagnosed clinically with AS were assigned to appropriate DSM-IV/ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The analysis indicated that 11(23%) cases would be reassigned a diagnosis of autism by either ICD-10 or DSM-IV according to their onset and precedence rules, and 33(68%) would be diagnosed with AS. These results contrast with those of others who have stated that the diagnosis of AS using ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria is ‘virtually impossible’. It is suggested that this is due to limitations inherent in these criteria, and alternative conceptualizations are discussed.
Keywords Asperger syndrome diagnosis autism References American Psychiatric Association. 1987Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (3rd Ed.) APA Washington, DC Google Scholar American Psychiatric Association. 1994DSM-IV diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th Ed.) APA Washington, DC Google Scholar
Asperger H. (1944). Die “Autistischen Psychopathen” im Kindesalter.
Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 117, 76–136. (Reprinted in Autism and Asperger syndrome, by U. Frith, Ed., 1991, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press). Bishop, D. 1989 Autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and semantic-pragmatic disorder: where are the boundaries? British Journal of Disorders of Communication 24 107 122 Google Scholar Eisenmajer, R., Prior, M., Leekam, S., Wing, L., Gould, J., Welham, M. 1996 Comparison of clinical symptoms in autism and Asperger’s disorder Journal of American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry 35 1523 1531 Google Scholar Gillberg, I. C., Gillberg, C. 1989 Asperger syndrome: Some epidemiological considerations: A research note Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 30 30 4, 631638 Google Scholar Hippler, K., Klicpera, C. 2003 A retrospective analysis of the clinical case records of ’autistic psychopaths’ diagnosed by Hans Asperger and his team at the University Children’s Hospital, Vienna Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 358 291 301 Google Scholar Kanner, L. 1943 Autistic disturbance of affective contact Nervous Child 2 217 250 Google Scholar
Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. R. (1997). The pervasive developmental disorders: Nosology and profiles of development. In S. S. Luthar, & J. A. Burack (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Perspectives on adjustment, risk, and disorder. (pp. 208–226).
Klin, A., Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. 2000Asperger syndrome The Guilford Press New York Google Scholar Landa, R. 2000 Social language use in Asperger syndrome and high functioning Autism Klin, A. Volkmar, F. R. Sparrow, S. S. eds. Asperger syndrome. The Guilford Press New York Google Scholar Leekam, S., Libby, S., Wing, L., Gould, J., Gillberg, C. 2000 Comparison of ICD-10 and Gillberg’s criteria for Asperger Syndrome Autism 4 11 28 Google Scholar Mayes, S., Calhoun, S., Crites, D. 2001 Does DSM-IV Asperger’s disorder exist? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3 263 271 Google Scholar Miller, J. N., Ozonoff, S. 1997 Did Asperger’s cases have Asperger disorder? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38 247 251 Google Scholar Ozonoff, S. 2000 Neuropsychological Function and the External Validity of Asperger Syndrome Klin, A. Volkmar, F. R. Sparrow, S. S. eds. Asperger Syndrome. The Guilford Press New York 73 96 Google Scholar Rourke, B. 1987 Syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities: The final common pathway of white matter disease/dysfunction The Clinical Neuropsychologist 1 209 234 Google Scholar Rourke, B. 1989Nonverbal learning disabilities: The syndrome and the model The Guilford Press New York Google Scholar Schopler, E. 1985 Convergence of learning disability, higher-level autism, and Asperger’s Syndrome Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 15 359 360 Google Scholar Szatmari, P., Bremner, R., Nagy, J. 1989 Asperger’s Syndrome: A review of clinical features Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 34 554 560 Google Scholar Tantam, D. 1988 Asperger’s syndrome Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 29 245 255 Google Scholar Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A. 2000 Diagnostic Issues in Asperger Syndrome Klin, A. Volkmar, F. R. Sparrow, S. eds. Asperger syndrome. The Guilford Press New York Google Scholar Volkmar, F. R., Klin, A., Siegel, B., Szatmari, P., et al. 1994 Field trial for autistic disorder in DSM-IV American Journal of Psychiatry 151 1361 1367 Google Scholar World Health Organization. 1992ICD-10 International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems WHO Geneva Google Scholar Wing, L. 1981 Asperger syndrome: a clinical account Psychological Medicine 11 115 130 Google Scholar
Wing L. (1997). The Autistic Spectrum.
Wolff, S. 1991 ’Schizoid’ personality in childhood and adult life. I: The vagaries of diagnostic labeling British Journal of Psychiatry 159 615 620 Google Scholar Wolff, S. 2000 Schizoid Personality in Childhood and Asperger Syndrome Klin, A. Volkmar, F. R. Sparrow, S. eds. Asperger syndrome. The Guilford Press New York 278 305 Google Scholar Wolff, S., Barlow, A. 1979 Schizoid personality in childhood: A comparative study of schizoid, autistic and normal children Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines 20 29 46 Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005