Academic Achievement Over 8 Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age
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The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4–6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD in wave 1 had lower reading, spelling, and mathematics scores over time than both comparison children and children who met modified criteria for the other subtypes of ADHD. In some analyses, children who met modified criteria for the combined type had somewhat lower mathematics scores than comparison children. The robust academic deficits relative to intelligence in the inattentive group in this age range suggest either that inattention results in academic underachievement or that some children in the inattentive group have learning disabilities that cause secondary symptoms of inattention. Unexpectedly, wave 1 internalizing (anxiety and depression) symptoms independently predicted deficits in academic achievement controlling ADHD, intelligence, and other predictors.
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- Academic Achievement Over 8 Years Among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4–6 Years of Age
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Volume 36, Issue 3 , pp 399-410
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
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- Springer US
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- Academic achievement
- Learning disabilities
- Longitudinal outcomes
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Departments of Psychology and Pediatrics, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USA
- 5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA, 30341, USA
- 2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
- 3. Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA
- 4. Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA